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42 terms

body structure and function

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anatomy
the study of body structure
physiology
the study of how the body functions
metabolism
all the life-sustaining reactions that occur within the body
anabolism
simple compounds are use to manufacture material needed for tissue function, growth, and repair.
catabolism
complex substances are broken down into simpler compounds.
ATP
the energy currency of the cell
homeostasis
a steady state of balance within the body
negative feedback
each change must be reversed to restore the norm.
superior
above, or in a higher position
inferior
below, or lower
ventral
located toward the belly surface or front of the body
dorsal
toward the back
cranial
nearer to the head
medial
nearer to an imaginary plane that passes through the midline of the body
lateral
farther away from the midline, toward the side
sagittal plane
a cut exactly down the midline of the body
transverse or horizontal
a plane that divides a structure into superior and inferior parts
frontal or coronal plane
a plane that divides a structure into anterior and posterior parts
the levels of organization of the body
chemicals, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, whole organism
function of the cell or plasma membrane
Basic unit of life, show all characteristics of life-organization, metabolism, responsiveness, homeostasis, growth, reproduction
diffusion
this is where molecules move from an area of higher concentrations to lower.
osmosis
diffusion of water goes through semipermeable membrane
filtration
movement of materials through plasma membrane under mechanical force
active transport
this requires cellular energy, movement of particles from lower to higher concentration.
phagocytosis
this engulf large particles into the cell
what are the four main types of tissues classification
epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue.
what are the four muscle tissue
Skeletal muscle-voluntary, also called the striated muscle; Cardiac muscle-involuntary; Smooth muscle-involuntary.
what are the three main layers of the skin
epidermis-outermost layer; dermis-the true skin middle layer; subcutaneous innermost layer.
The function of the integumentary system
Protection against infection; Protection against dehydration; Regulation of body temperature; Collection of sensory information; Other activities of the skin-absorption , excretion, manufacture of vitamin D.
supination
is the act of turning the palm up or forward.
Pronation
is turning the palm down or backward.
Flexion
is bending the fingers to close the hand.
Extension
is straightening the fingers to open the hand.
Abduction
is moving the arm straight out to the side.
Adduction
is bringing the arm back to side of the body.
Tendon
cord of connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.
ligament
is a structure that connects two bones, they also support and strengthen joints.
Cranial nerves
there are 12 pairs attached to the brain; Carry special and general sensory impulses; Carry somatic and visceral motor impulses; Types sensory (1,2,8); Motor (3,4,6,11,12); Mixed (5,7,9,10).
Spinal nerves
there are 31 pairs, each nerve is attached to the spinal cord by two roots, the dorsal and the ventral root. Spinal nerves carry messages to and from the spinal cord.`
Motor nerves
They are nerves that either control or supply muscles in the eye, neck, larynx, and tongue (3,4,6,11,12).
Sensory nerves
carries impulses of smell, visual and hearing to the brain (1,2,8).
Mixed nerves
carries impulses of the eye, upper jaw, and lower jaw toward the brain; These nerves also deal with taste, facial muscles for expression, stimulates small salivary gland and lacrimal (tear) gland, also supplies most of the organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities; carries motor impulses to the larynx (voice box) in short they work both sides of the nerves (5,7,9,10).