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the study of body structure


the study of how the body functions


all the life-sustaining reactions that occur within the body


simple compounds are use to manufacture material needed for tissue function, growth, and repair.


complex substances are broken down into simpler compounds.


the energy currency of the cell


a steady state of balance within the body

negative feedback

each change must be reversed to restore the norm.


above, or in a higher position


below, or lower


located toward the belly surface or front of the body


toward the back


nearer to the head


nearer to an imaginary plane that passes through the midline of the body


farther away from the midline, toward the side

sagittal plane

a cut exactly down the midline of the body

transverse or horizontal

a plane that divides a structure into superior and inferior parts

frontal or coronal plane

a plane that divides a structure into anterior and posterior parts

the levels of organization of the body

chemicals, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, whole organism

function of the cell or plasma membrane

Basic unit of life, show all characteristics of life-organization, metabolism, responsiveness, homeostasis, growth, reproduction


this is where molecules move from an area of higher concentrations to lower.


diffusion of water goes through semipermeable membrane


movement of materials through plasma membrane under mechanical force

active transport

this requires cellular energy, movement of particles from lower to higher concentration.


this engulf large particles into the cell

what are the four main types of tissues classification

epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue.

what are the four muscle tissue

Skeletal muscle-voluntary, also called the striated muscle; Cardiac muscle-involuntary; Smooth muscle-involuntary.

what are the three main layers of the skin

epidermis-outermost layer; dermis-the true skin middle layer; subcutaneous innermost layer.

The function of the integumentary system

Protection against infection; Protection against dehydration; Regulation of body temperature; Collection of sensory information; Other activities of the skin-absorption , excretion, manufacture of vitamin D.


is the act of turning the palm up or forward.


is turning the palm down or backward.


is bending the fingers to close the hand.


is straightening the fingers to open the hand.


is moving the arm straight out to the side.


is bringing the arm back to side of the body.


cord of connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.


is a structure that connects two bones, they also support and strengthen joints.

Cranial nerves

there are 12 pairs attached to the brain; Carry special and general sensory impulses; Carry somatic and visceral motor impulses; Types sensory (1,2,8); Motor (3,4,6,11,12); Mixed (5,7,9,10).

Spinal nerves

there are 31 pairs, each nerve is attached to the spinal cord by two roots, the dorsal and the ventral root. Spinal nerves carry messages to and from the spinal cord.`

Motor nerves

They are nerves that either control or supply muscles in the eye, neck, larynx, and tongue (3,4,6,11,12).

Sensory nerves

carries impulses of smell, visual and hearing to the brain (1,2,8).

Mixed nerves

carries impulses of the eye, upper jaw, and lower jaw toward the brain; These nerves also deal with taste, facial muscles for expression, stimulates small salivary gland and lacrimal (tear) gland, also supplies most of the organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities; carries motor impulses to the larynx (voice box) in short they work both sides of the nerves (5,7,9,10).

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