100 terms

The following words need to be mastered before entering advanced mathematics content for the 2012-2013 school year.

Rate

A ratio that compares two quantities having different units

Unit Rate

Comparing an amount to one, a rate that has a denominator of 1

Percent of Increase

the percent of change when the new amount is greater than the original, percent by which an amount has been raised compared to the original amount

Percent of Decrease

percent of change where the new number is less than the original number

Mark Up

amount added to the cost of a product to set the selling price

Discount

the amount by which the regular price of an item is reduced

Integers

Positive and Negative Whole Numbers and 0

Factors

Numbers that are multiplied together to get a product

Multiples

numbers you say when you skip count.

Greatest Common Factor

The largest number that is a common divisor of a given set of numbers.

Least Common Multiple

The smallest number that is a common multiple of a given set of numbers

Prime Number

a number with exactly two factors, 1 and the number itself

Composite Number

A whole number with more than two factors. In other words, a number that is not prime. Zero and one are neither prime nor composite

Prime Factorization

Breaking down a composite number until all of the factors are prime

Corresponding Angles

congruent angles in the same relative position within two figures

Corresponding Sides

A pair of sides from similar figures that are in the same position.

Congruent

Having the same size and shape

Similar

Figures that have the same shape but not necessarily the same size

Volume of Triangle Pyramid

V=1/3 Bh, where is the area of the triangular base and is the height of the pyramid

Surface Area

the sum of all the areas of all the shapes that cover the surface of the object.

Surface Area of a Cube

the area of the six squares that cover it

Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism

2 (ab) + 2 (bc) + 2 (ac)

Surface Area of Any Prism

Lateral area + Area of two bases

Surface Area of a Sphere

= 4 pi r squared

Surface Area of a Cylinder

2(pi r squared) + (2 pi r)* h

Volume of a Figure

measured in cubic units, it is the number of cubes required to fill it completely

Volume of a cube

side times side times side

5 Area & Length Conversions

1 acre = (1/640) miles2

1 mile = 1760 yards = 5280 feet

1 yard = 3 feet = 36 inches

1 foot = 12 inches

1 inch = 2.54 centimeters

1 mile = 1760 yards = 5280 feet

1 yard = 3 feet = 36 inches

1 foot = 12 inches

1 inch = 2.54 centimeters

7 Volume Conversions

1 cup = 8 fluid ounces = (1/2) pint = (1/4) quart = (1/16) gallon

1 mile = 63360 inches = 5280 feet = 1760 yards

1 yard = 36 inches = 3 feet = (1/1760) mile

1 foot = 12 inches = (1/3) yard = (1/5280) mile

1 pint = 16 fluid ounces = (1/2) quart = (1/8) gallon

1 inch = 2.54 centimeters = (1/12) foot = (1/36) yard

1 liter = 1000 centimeters = 1 decimeters = (1/1000) meters

1 mile = 63360 inches = 5280 feet = 1760 yards

1 yard = 36 inches = 3 feet = (1/1760) mile

1 foot = 12 inches = (1/3) yard = (1/5280) mile

1 pint = 16 fluid ounces = (1/2) quart = (1/8) gallon

1 inch = 2.54 centimeters = (1/12) foot = (1/36) yard

1 liter = 1000 centimeters = 1 decimeters = (1/1000) meters

5 Properties of Addition

Additive Identity a + 0 = a

Additive Inverse a + (-a) = 0

Associative of Addition (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)

Commutative of Addition a + b = b + a

Definition of Subtraction a - b = a + (-b)

Additive Inverse a + (-a) = 0

Associative of Addition (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)

Commutative of Addition a + b = b + a

Definition of Subtraction a - b = a + (-b)

5 Properties of Multiplication

Multiplicative Identity a * 1 = a

Multiplicative Inverse a * (1/a) = 1

Associative of Multiplication (a** b) ** c = a ** (b ** c)

Commutative of Multiplication a** b = b ** a

Distributive Law a(b + c) = ab + ac

Multiplicative Inverse a * (1/a) = 1

Associative of Multiplication (a

Commutative of Multiplication a

Distributive Law a(b + c) = ab + ac

acute angle

An angle measuring more than zero degrees and less than 90 degrees

congruent

Having the same size and shape

exponent

A number that tells how many times the base is multiplied by itself

reciprocal

The inverse of a fraction; when multiplied by the original fraction, it results in a product that equals one

vertex

The point of intersection for two sides of a plane figure, three sides of a solid figure, or the endpoints of two rays that form an angle.

expression

A combination of numbers and variables connected by one or more operations signs

polygon

Three or more line segments in a plane that forms a closed figure. The line segments never cross but meet at their endpoints.

product

The result of muliplying two or more numbers

hexagon

A polygon with six sides.

range

The difference between the least and greatest values in a set of numbers

scalene triangle

A triangle with sides of different lengths and no two angles are the same

area

Surface space that is measured in square units

perimeter

The distance around a figure

circumference

The distance around a circle (the perimeter of a circle)

straight angle

An angle that measures 180 degrees

obtuse angle

An angle measuring more than 90 degrees and less than 180 degrees

complementary angles

angles whose sum equals 90 degrees

diameter

A line segment that passes through the center of a circle and has its endpoints on the circle

quotient

The result of dividing one number by another; the solution to a division problem

dividend

In a division problem, it's the number being divided

divisor

In a division problem, the number that an amount is divided by

mean

The sum of a group of numbers divided by the number of numbers; also known as the average

median

A value found by ordering a group of data from least to greatest and choosing the middle value of the group.

mode

In a group of values, the value that occurs most often

pyramid

A solid figure that has triangles for its sides and a polygon as its base

quadrilateral

A polygon that has four sides

parallelogram

a quadrilateral with two pairs of congruent, parallel sides

rectangle

A parallelogram with four right angles

reflection

A mirror image of a figure shown over a line of reflection

equation

A mathematical sentence that uses an equal sign

scale drawing

A drawing of an object that is different in size (usually smaller than the original) but keeps the same proportions

trapezoid

A quadrilateral with one pair of parallel sides

cylinder

A solid figure with two congruent and parallel circular bases

octagon

A polygon with eight sides

pentagon

A polygon with five sides

percent

The ratio of a number to 100; the symbol %

equilateral triangle

A triangle that has three equal sides and three equal angles

radius

A length that is half the diameter of a circle; the distance from the center of the circle to the circle itself

isosceles triangle

A triangle with two equal sides and two equal angles

right triangle

A triangle with one right angle

supplementary angles

angles whose sum is 180 degrees

rhombus

A parallelogram with all sides equal and congruent

lowest terms

A fraction with all common factors (other than 1) factored out of the numerator and denominator

square root

A number that when multiplied by itself results in the original number

prism

a solid figure that has two congruent, parallel polygons as its bases. Its sides are parallelograms.

ratio

A comparison of the two values of two numbers

proportion

An equation stating that two ratios are equal

quadrant

One of the four regions formed by the intersection of the axes of a coordinate graph

x-axis

The horizontal number line of a coordinate graph

y-axis

The vertical number line of a coordinate graph

x-coordinate

The value on the x-axis used to locate a point on the coordinate graph. It is the first value in an ordered pair.

y-coordinate

The value on the y-axis used to locate a point on the coordinate graph. It is the second value in an ordered pair.

ordered pair

Two numbers listed in a specific order; it describes a point on the coordinate graph

rational numbers

numbers that can be written as a fraction

irrational numbers

numbers that can not be written as a fraction, never terminates or repeats

Pythagorean Theorem

a squared + b squared = c squared

rate of change

a rate describing how one quantity changes in relation to another

vertical angles

opposite angles formed by intersecting lines

reflection

the mirror image produced by flipping a figure over a line

translation

the movement of a figure from one position to another without turning it

slope

the ratio of the rise,or vertical change, to the run,or horizontal change

slope-intercept form

y=mx+b

y-intercept

the y-coordinate of the point where the line crosses the y-axis.

quartiles

values that divide a set of data into four equal parts

lower quartile

the median of the lower half of a set of data

upper quartile

the median of the upper half of a set of data

interquartile range

the difference between the upper quartile and the lower quartile

outlier

data that are more than 1.5 times the value of the interquartile range beyond either quartile

inequality

an open sentence that uses greater than, less than, and equal to, to compare two quantities