100 terms

The following words need to be mastered before entering advanced mathematics content for the 2012-2013 school year.
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Rate
A ratio that compares two quantities having different units
Unit Rate
Comparing an amount to one, a rate that has a denominator of 1
Percent of Increase
the percent of change when the new amount is greater than the original, percent by which an amount has been raised compared to the original amount
Percent of Decrease
percent of change where the new number is less than the original number
Mark Up
amount added to the cost of a product to set the selling price
Discount
the amount by which the regular price of an item is reduced
Integers
Positive and Negative Whole Numbers and 0
Factors
Numbers that are multiplied together to get a product
Multiples
numbers you say when you skip count.
Greatest Common Factor
The largest number that is a common divisor of a given set of numbers.
Least Common Multiple
The smallest number that is a common multiple of a given set of numbers
Prime Number
a number with exactly two factors, 1 and the number itself
Composite Number
A whole number with more than two factors. In other words, a number that is not prime. Zero and one are neither prime nor composite
Prime Factorization
Breaking down a composite number until all of the factors are prime
Corresponding Angles
congruent angles in the same relative position within two figures
Corresponding Sides
A pair of sides from similar figures that are in the same position.
Congruent
Having the same size and shape
Similar
Figures that have the same shape but not necessarily the same size
Volume of Triangle Pyramid
V=1/3 Bh, where is the area of the triangular base and is the height of the pyramid
Surface Area
the sum of all the areas of all the shapes that cover the surface of the object.
Surface Area of a Cube
the area of the six squares that cover it
Surface Area of a Rectangular Prism
2 (ab) + 2 (bc) + 2 (ac)
Surface Area of Any Prism
Lateral area + Area of two bases
Surface Area of a Sphere
= 4 pi r squared
Surface Area of a Cylinder
2(pi r squared) + (2 pi r)* h
Volume of a Figure
measured in cubic units, it is the number of cubes required to fill it completely
Volume of a cube
side times side times side
5 Area & Length Conversions
1 acre = (1/640) miles2
1 mile = 1760 yards = 5280 feet
1 yard = 3 feet = 36 inches
1 foot = 12 inches
1 inch = 2.54 centimeters
7 Volume Conversions
1 cup = 8 fluid ounces = (1/2) pint = (1/4) quart = (1/16) gallon
1 mile = 63360 inches = 5280 feet = 1760 yards
1 yard = 36 inches = 3 feet = (1/1760) mile
1 foot = 12 inches = (1/3) yard = (1/5280) mile
1 pint = 16 fluid ounces = (1/2) quart = (1/8) gallon
1 inch = 2.54 centimeters = (1/12) foot = (1/36) yard
1 liter = 1000 centimeters = 1 decimeters = (1/1000) meters
Additive Identity a + 0 = a
Additive Inverse a + (-a) = 0
Associative of Addition (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
Commutative of Addition a + b = b + a
Definition of Subtraction a - b = a + (-b)
5 Properties of Multiplication
Multiplicative Identity a * 1 = a
Multiplicative Inverse a * (1/a) = 1
Associative of Multiplication (a b) c = a (b c)
Commutative of Multiplication a b = b a
Distributive Law a(b + c) = ab + ac
acute angle
An angle measuring more than zero degrees and less than 90 degrees
congruent
Having the same size and shape
exponent
A number that tells how many times the base is multiplied by itself
reciprocal
The inverse of a fraction; when multiplied by the original fraction, it results in a product that equals one
vertex
The point of intersection for two sides of a plane figure, three sides of a solid figure, or the endpoints of two rays that form an angle.
expression
A combination of numbers and variables connected by one or more operations signs
polygon
Three or more line segments in a plane that forms a closed figure. The line segments never cross but meet at their endpoints.
product
The result of muliplying two or more numbers
hexagon
A polygon with six sides.
range
The difference between the least and greatest values in a set of numbers
scalene triangle
A triangle with sides of different lengths and no two angles are the same
area
Surface space that is measured in square units
perimeter
The distance around a figure
circumference
The distance around a circle (the perimeter of a circle)
straight angle
An angle that measures 180 degrees
obtuse angle
An angle measuring more than 90 degrees and less than 180 degrees
complementary angles
angles whose sum equals 90 degrees
diameter
A line segment that passes through the center of a circle and has its endpoints on the circle
quotient
The result of dividing one number by another; the solution to a division problem
dividend
In a division problem, it's the number being divided
divisor
In a division problem, the number that an amount is divided by
mean
The sum of a group of numbers divided by the number of numbers; also known as the average
median
A value found by ordering a group of data from least to greatest and choosing the middle value of the group.
mode
In a group of values, the value that occurs most often
pyramid
A solid figure that has triangles for its sides and a polygon as its base
A polygon that has four sides
parallelogram
a quadrilateral with two pairs of congruent, parallel sides
rectangle
A parallelogram with four right angles
reflection
A mirror image of a figure shown over a line of reflection
equation
A mathematical sentence that uses an equal sign
scale drawing
A drawing of an object that is different in size (usually smaller than the original) but keeps the same proportions
trapezoid
A quadrilateral with one pair of parallel sides
cylinder
A solid figure with two congruent and parallel circular bases
octagon
A polygon with eight sides
pentagon
A polygon with five sides
percent
The ratio of a number to 100; the symbol %
equilateral triangle
A triangle that has three equal sides and three equal angles
A length that is half the diameter of a circle; the distance from the center of the circle to the circle itself
isosceles triangle
A triangle with two equal sides and two equal angles
right triangle
A triangle with one right angle
supplementary angles
angles whose sum is 180 degrees
rhombus
A parallelogram with all sides equal and congruent
lowest terms
A fraction with all common factors (other than 1) factored out of the numerator and denominator
square root
A number that when multiplied by itself results in the original number
prism
a solid figure that has two congruent, parallel polygons as its bases. Its sides are parallelograms.
ratio
A comparison of the two values of two numbers
proportion
An equation stating that two ratios are equal
One of the four regions formed by the intersection of the axes of a coordinate graph
x-axis
The horizontal number line of a coordinate graph
y-axis
The vertical number line of a coordinate graph
x-coordinate
The value on the x-axis used to locate a point on the coordinate graph. It is the first value in an ordered pair.
y-coordinate
The value on the y-axis used to locate a point on the coordinate graph. It is the second value in an ordered pair.
ordered pair
Two numbers listed in a specific order; it describes a point on the coordinate graph
rational numbers
numbers that can be written as a fraction
irrational numbers
numbers that can not be written as a fraction, never terminates or repeats
Pythagorean Theorem
a squared + b squared = c squared
rate of change
a rate describing how one quantity changes in relation to another
vertical angles
opposite angles formed by intersecting lines
reflection
the mirror image produced by flipping a figure over a line
translation
the movement of a figure from one position to another without turning it
slope
the ratio of the rise,or vertical change, to the run,or horizontal change
slope-intercept form
y=mx+b
y-intercept
the y-coordinate of the point where the line crosses the y-axis.
quartiles
values that divide a set of data into four equal parts
lower quartile
the median of the lower half of a set of data
upper quartile
the median of the upper half of a set of data
interquartile range
the difference between the upper quartile and the lower quartile
outlier
data that are more than 1.5 times the value of the interquartile range beyond either quartile
inequality
an open sentence that uses greater than, less than, and equal to, to compare two quantities