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38 terms

Biology Chapter 30 Vocab

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Blood
fluid connective tissue of the circulatory system; consists of blood cells and plasma
Heart
multi-chambered, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body
Capillary
microscopic blood vessel that carries blood between an artery and a vein, allowing the exchange of substances between the blood and interstitial fluid
Artery
vessel that carries blood away from the heart to other parts of the body
Vein
vessel that returns blood to the heart
Lymph
fluid similar to interstitial fluid that circulates in the lymphatic system
Pulmonary circuit
circuit of blood flow that carries blood between the heart and lungs
Systemic circuit
circuit of blood flow that carries blood between the heart and the rest of the body
Aorta
artery that carries blood directly from the heart to the rest of the body
Atrium
heart chamber that receives blood returning to the heart from other parts of the body
Ventricle
heart chamber that pumps blood out of the heart
Valve
flap of tissue in the heart that prevents blood from flowing in the wrong direction
Pacemaker
specific region of heart that sets the rate at which the heart contracts
AV node
region of the heart between the right atrium and right ventricle from which electrical impulses spread to the ventricles during a heartbeat
Systolic pressure
first number of a blood pressure reading; measures the pressure on artery walls when heart ventricles contract
Diastolic pressure
second number of a blood pressure reading; measurement of the pressure on artery walls when the heart is relaxed
Plasma
liquid portion of blood made up of water, dissolved salts, proteins, and other substances
Red blood cell
blood cell containing hemoglobin, which transports oxygen; also called an erythrocyte
Hemoglobin
iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells
White blood cell
blood cell that functions in defending the body against infections and cancer cells; also called a leukocyte
Platelet
fragment of a blood cell originating in the bone marrow that is involved in blood clotting
Plaque
deposits of cholesterol, calcium, and fat that build up on artery walls and can lead to cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease
illness of the heart and/or blood vessels
Atherosclerosis
narrowing of the arteries that results from a buildup of plaque
Heart attack
condition that occurs when an artery becomes blocked, disrupting blood flow to the heart
Arteriosclerosis
condition that occurs when plaque hardens on artery walls
Hypertension
condition of having a blood pressure of 140/90 or higher for an extended period; also called high blood pressure
Stroke
damage to brain tissue resulting from a clot blocking blood flow to the brain
Pharynx
the junction in the throat of the alimentary canal and the trachea
Epiglottis
flap of tissue that covers the trachea during swallowing, preventing food from entering the lungs
Larynx
voicebox; contains the vocal cords
Trachea
in some arthropods, chitin-lined air tube that forms part of the respiratory system (Concept 24.1); in humans, tube between the larynx and bronchi through which air travels to the lungs; also called the windpipe
Bronchus
one of two tubes connecting the trachea to each lung
Lung
organ consisting of sponge-like tissue that exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with the blood
Bronchiolie
thin tube that branches from a bronchus within a lung
Alveolus
one of millions of tiny sacs within the lungs where gas exchange occurs
Diaphragm
sheet of muscle that forms the bottom wall of the chest cavity; contracts during inhaling and relaxes during exhaling
Emphysema
respiratory disease in which alveoli lose their elasticity, leading to difficulty breathing