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fluid connective tissue of the circulatory system; consists of blood cells and plasma


multi-chambered, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body


microscopic blood vessel that carries blood between an artery and a vein, allowing the exchange of substances between the blood and interstitial fluid


vessel that carries blood away from the heart to other parts of the body


vessel that returns blood to the heart


fluid similar to interstitial fluid that circulates in the lymphatic system

Pulmonary circuit

circuit of blood flow that carries blood between the heart and lungs

Systemic circuit

circuit of blood flow that carries blood between the heart and the rest of the body


artery that carries blood directly from the heart to the rest of the body


heart chamber that receives blood returning to the heart from other parts of the body


heart chamber that pumps blood out of the heart


flap of tissue in the heart that prevents blood from flowing in the wrong direction


specific region of heart that sets the rate at which the heart contracts

AV node

region of the heart between the right atrium and right ventricle from which electrical impulses spread to the ventricles during a heartbeat

Systolic pressure

first number of a blood pressure reading; measures the pressure on artery walls when heart ventricles contract

Diastolic pressure

second number of a blood pressure reading; measurement of the pressure on artery walls when the heart is relaxed


liquid portion of blood made up of water, dissolved salts, proteins, and other substances

Red blood cell

blood cell containing hemoglobin, which transports oxygen; also called an erythrocyte


iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells

White blood cell

blood cell that functions in defending the body against infections and cancer cells; also called a leukocyte


fragment of a blood cell originating in the bone marrow that is involved in blood clotting


deposits of cholesterol, calcium, and fat that build up on artery walls and can lead to cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease

illness of the heart and/or blood vessels


narrowing of the arteries that results from a buildup of plaque

Heart attack

condition that occurs when an artery becomes blocked, disrupting blood flow to the heart


condition that occurs when plaque hardens on artery walls


condition of having a blood pressure of 140/90 or higher for an extended period; also called high blood pressure


damage to brain tissue resulting from a clot blocking blood flow to the brain


the junction in the throat of the alimentary canal and the trachea


flap of tissue that covers the trachea during swallowing, preventing food from entering the lungs


voicebox; contains the vocal cords


in some arthropods, chitin-lined air tube that forms part of the respiratory system (Concept 24.1); in humans, tube between the larynx and bronchi through which air travels to the lungs; also called the windpipe


one of two tubes connecting the trachea to each lung


organ consisting of sponge-like tissue that exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with the blood


thin tube that branches from a bronchus within a lung


one of millions of tiny sacs within the lungs where gas exchange occurs


sheet of muscle that forms the bottom wall of the chest cavity; contracts during inhaling and relaxes during exhaling


respiratory disease in which alveoli lose their elasticity, leading to difficulty breathing

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