- central to maintaining viable family - central to effective business & industries - central to education - central to long-term maintenance of psychological health
Expectations defining appropriate behavior of an occupant of a position, toward other related positions (ex: President, VP, secretary)
Common beliefs re: group members' appropriate behavior, attitudes, & perceptions, rules, implicit/explicit, regulate behavior of group members. (ex: promptness, courtesy)
- group whose members have been assigned to work together but who have no interest in doing so. (ex: regional sales team)
TRADITIONAL WORK GROUP
- group whose members are assigned to work together and accept that they have to do so. (ex: students in a teacher designated study group)
- "more than the sum of its parts"; group whose members commit to maximizing their own & one another's success. (ex: sports team)
- group which meets all effective group criteria and out performs all reasonable expectations, given its membership; rare.
- group people identify with, compare their attitudes to, and use as a means of evaluating those attitudes.
- when expectations of the obligations that accompany a role can conflict. (contradictory, incompatibility).
- focuses on the individual in the group; scientists explain group functioning thru attitudes/cognitions/personalities of the members of the group.
- focuses on the group as a whole; scientists explain group functioning thru influences of the group & larger social systems.
- primary groups characterized by face-to-face interaction, interdependence, & strong group identification. (ex: family, close friends)
- a collection of individuals present at the same time & place but who do not form a unit or have common degree of similarity. (ex: individuals standing on street corner, audience members at a play)
-# of individuals join together to achieve a goal -several individuals who are interdependent -individuals who are interacting w/one another -social unit w/2 or more persons, perceive themselves part of a group -collection of individuals w/set of norms & roles -collection of individuals who influence each other -collection of individuals trying to satisfy some personal need, thru joint association
IMPORTANCE OF GROUPS
- Humans are small group beings - Essential to the survival of the species - Living conditions depended on cooperative efforts of group work for success.