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43 terms

Anatomy & Physiology

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What are the 5 senses
touch, pressure, sense of balance, pain, temperature
What are the special 5 senses
smell, taste, hearing, sight, balance
Chemoreceptors- what is it and give an example
Chemicals-taste and smell
Pain receptors- what is it and give an example
tissue damage- stepping on a nail
Mechanoreceptors- what is it and give an example
balance and hearing- movement of fluids
theromoreceptors
Temperature change- hot and cold
photoreceptors
stimulated by light- rods and cones
What is the receptors name for hearing
Olfactory
What is the receptors name for taste
Gustatory
what are the 4 taste buds from tip to top
sweet, salty, sour, bitter
What is the pathway that light travels through the eye
Cornea- aqueos humor- pupil- lens- vitreous humor- retina- optic nerve- brain
What is the difference between aqueous and vitreous humor
Vitreous humor is jelly shaped gives eyeball shape and aqueous humor is watery
What is in the outer ear
Auricle- External Auditory Canal- Tympanic membrane
What is in the middle ear
Tympanic membrane- Malleus- Incus- Stapes-oval window
What is another name for malleus incus and stapes
hammer anvil stirrup
What is in the inner ear
cochlea, organ of corti, hairs, brain
What is the pathway of sound
Auricle- E.A.C.- tympanic membrane- malleus- incus- stapes- oval window- cochlea- organ of corti- hairs- olfactory nerve, brain
What is in a testube if someone gives blood
55% plasma 45% formed element- WBC, RBC, platelets
What are RBC, describe their texture
RBC are called erythrocytes. They are donut shaped with a hollow center, and are very flexible
WBC-Name all the granulocytes and what they do
neutrophil- fights of infections with phagocytosis
basophil- starts inflammatory response after injury
eosinophil-releases histamine and fights off allergens and parasites
NBA-A+E=NBE
Name all the a-granulocytes
Lymphoctye- helps with immunity
Monocyte-replenish macrophages and dendrites to normal state
When you have dark red and bright cells they are
de oxygenated and oxygenated
Whats the difference between RBC and WBC
WBC can leave the vessel and RBC can't
What are the steps of hemostasis (stop of bleeding)
When you get a cut, the location of the cut tightens and has a spasm, then a platelet plug forms, and the a fibrin thread
Coagulation
Coagulation: the clotting of blood to seal off the opening in an injured blood vessels
Agglutination
clumping together of RBCs causes hemolysis; not a match
Why is blood type O the universal donor?
it has no antigens
Blood type A-antigen, antibody, who can they receive from, who could they donate to?
A antigen
Anti-B anitbodies
Can receive from: A, O
can donate to: A, AB
Blood type B-antigen, antibody, who can they receive from, who could they donate to?
B antigen
Anti-A antibodies
Can Receive from: B,O
Can donate to: B, Ab
Blood type ABantigen, antibody, who can they receive from, who could they donate to?
A antigen and B antigen
No antibodies
Can receive from: A, B, AB, O
Can donate to: AB
Blood Type O
No antigen
Anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies
Can receive from: O
Can donate to: O, A, B, AB
What is the location of the heart
medial to the lungs, posterior to the sternum, anterior to the spine, superior to the diaphragm
whats the size of the heart compared to and how many times does it beat a minute
size of your first
60-80 a minute
What is the sacs of the heart
Pericardial sac -> Parietal (outer), Visceral (deeper)
What are the three layers of the heart
outer to inner- Epicardium, myocardium (cardiac), endocardium
Pulmonary
Hearts and the lungs
Systematic
Heart and the rest of the body
What type of blood does the left side of the heart and right carry
left-oxygenated right- de-oxygenated
Rh factor, what is it and how was it discovered
discovered it with a rhesus monkey. Positive or the negative in your blood.
what is the role of RH in pregnancy
pregnancy number 1 is okay, then she starts to build antibodies, antibodies will kill baby unless she gets a shot of rogam
What is a protein marker?
its the marker on an antigen
antigen? antbody?
accepts and rejects
What is the pathway of blood pumping
Superior or vena cave, right atrium, tricuspid, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, bicuspid, aorta