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31 terms

AP environmental science ch. 6

STUDY
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aftershock
A weaker earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake
asthenosphere
-The lower layer of the crust
-weak sphere(soft)
-small amount of melting
body wave
seismic waves that travel through Earth's interior
(p waves and s waves)
core
the central part of the Earth
- composed of iron/nickel alloy
-extreme pressure
crust
the outer layer of the Earth (thin/ rocky) skin of earth
divided into oceanic and Continental crust
earthquake
the vibration of earth produced by the rapid release of energy
-most often earthquakes are caused by slippage in the fault
elastic rebound
-the springing back of rock
- rock behaves elastically
epicenter
the location on the Earth's surface directly above the focus(center of earthquake under the surface) of an earthquake
fault
large fractures in earth's crust
fault creep
occurs smoothly, with little seismic activity
- slow, gradual displacement
focus
-center of earthquake waves
-under the surface
foreshock
a small earthquake before a major earthquake
ex: days before or years before
inner core
a dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth
-material in the inner core is stronger(solid)
intensity
degree of shaking(earthquake)
liquefaction
occurs when an earthquake's violent shaking turns loose, soft soil into liquid mud
-unconsolidated materials that are saturated with water
lithosphere
the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle
- sphere of rock
magnitude
- quantitive measurement of an earthquake based on seismic records
mantle
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
-solid rocky shell
modified mercalli intensity scale
measures damage
(moho)
boundary that separates the crust from the mantle
movement magnitude
amount of displacement along the fault zone, rather than measuring ground motion
outer core
liquid layer
primary (p) waves
one type of waves that travel through earth's interior
Richter scale
- based on amplitude of largest seismic wave
-Richter magnitude less than 2.0 can't be felt by humans
- Richter magnitude used for local earthquakes
secondary (s) waves
the other type of wave that can travel into earth's interior but not completely ( half way)
tsunami
seismic sea wave
- occurs when oceanic crust is displaced
- water can build up (height)
seismogram
records of earthquakes (written down)
seismograph
modern instruments that record earthquake waves
seismology
the study of earthquake waves
shadow zone
s waves can not travel through this zone (middle of earth)
surface waves
waves that along earth's outer layer (surface)