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2 essential upper body compound movements

Pushing and Pulling movements.
Vertically up or down or horizontally

3 Essential exercises for lower body

The squat
The dead- lift
The lunge

Aid client by ......

Bringing work load to starting position

Barbell Deadlift major muscle groups

Targets the Gluteus Maximus, Hamstrings, Quadriceps, Posterior Adductors, Lower back, Upper back, Grip

Barbell Squat major muscles

Targets the Gluteus Maximus, Quadriceps, Hamstrings, Adductors, Gastrocnemius

Bar Dip (Vertical Push Down) major muscle groups

Targets the Anterior Deltoid, Triceps Brachii, Latissimus Dorsi, Pectoralis Major

Bicep Curl (Single Joint) major muscle groups

Targets the Biceps Brachii, Brachialis

Compound Exercises

RT exercises that combine more than one muscle or group (multi-joint exercises)

Concentric Action

Positive muscle action whereby the muscle is shortened under its own force
The agonist in a movement contracts concentric lily during the lifting phase of a movement

Core exercises that help to prevent back pain

Bird dog
Curl up
Side plank

Dumbbell Fly (Single Joint) major muscle groups

Targets the Pectoralis Major, Anterior Deltoid

Eccentric Action

Negative muscle action whereby the muscle resists while it's forced to lengthen
The agonist contracts eccentrically during the lowering phase of the lift

Flat Bench Press (Horizontal Push) major muscle groups

Targets the Pectoralis Major, Anterior Deltoids, Tricep Brachii

Forms the foundation for training programs

Core and compound exercises

Forward Lunge major muscles

Targets the Quadriceps, Gluteus Maximus, Hamstrings

Front Shoulder Press (Vertical Push) major muscle groups

Targets the Anterior and Medial Deltiod, Triceps Brachii


Increase in muscle mass in seditary people only after 4 to 8 weeks. Results of neural adaption in this time period.

Isokinetic Action

Positive or negative muscle action at a constant speed causing the muscle to exert a continuous and maximum force throughout the range of motion

Isolation Exercises

RT exercises concentrating on only one muscle or group (single-joint exercises)

Isometric Action

The muscle contracts against a fixed object with no change in its length

Lateral Dumbbell Raise (Single Joint) major muscle groups

Targets the Medial and Anterior Deltoid, Upper and Mid Trapezius

Lat Pulldown (Vertical Pull Down) major muscle groups

Targets the Lattissimus Dorsi, Rhomboids, Middle and Lower Trapezius, Biceps Brachii

Leg Curl (Single Joint) major muscle groups

Targets the Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus, Medial Hamstrings, Biceps Femoris, Lateral Hamstrings

Muscle Hypertrophy

The enlargement of a muscle resulting from an increase in the diameter of the muscle fibers

Muscle Power

The ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert explosive force with speed.
Power training is more common in sport specific training

Muscle Strength

The force of a muscle or group of muscles can exert against a resistance in a single contraction or effort.

Muscular Endurance

the ability of the muscles to perform physical tasks over a period of time without becoming fatigued

Purpose of a spotter

Provide protection during high RT exercises
Ensure proper technique
Provide encouragement and motivation to elicit maximal effort


A single complete action of any given exercise beginning from its starting position, returning to starting position

Resistance Training

Exercising the muscles against a resistance (weights, tubing, body weight, air/water) to improve muscular strength, endurance, power or composition. Increase overall health and fitness.

Resistance training improves....

Better balance of muscles
Lower resting BP
Increase HDL
Moderate decrease LDL
Increase in mineral absorption and bone density
Improved BMR
Weight management

RT Guidelines

Use safety bar collars
Use full ROM (except spine)
Inhale deeply before (loads above 80% 1 RM)
Inhale deeply (lower loads) during negative phase
Count of 2 to 5 during eccentric phase
Exhale through puresed lips during concentric phase of movement

Seated Cable Row (Horizontal Pulling) major muscle groups

Targets the Latissimus Dorsi, Rhomboids, Middle Trapezius, Biceps Brachii

Seated Calf Raise (Single Joint) major muscle groups

Targets the Soleus


A given number of completed and continuous repetitions performed consecutive without resting

Specific Training Technique

Tell: Explain the purpose: link to goal
Show: demonstrate correct execution
Explain: "This is what I did"
Do: Let client perform
Provide specific feedback for positive change

Spotter's hand position

On the level with machine exercises
On the barbell using alternating grip - upper body
For dumbells, joint in direct line and closest to the resistance

A spotter should......

should provide assistance only if necessary. Just enough to keep weight moving.
Rely on visual and tactile cues as well as visual

A spotter should not.......

obstruct the movement

Spotter's Position

As close to lifter as possible without obstructing
Where greatest lifting force can be provided with the least stress on spotter

Standing Calf Raise (Single Joint) major muscle groups

Targets the Gastronemius, Soleus

Strength-Endurance Relationship

Muscle or groups possessing the ability to generate muscular strength will also possess the ability to generate endurance

Tricep Pushdown (Single Joint) major muscle groups

Targets the Triceps Brachii

When spotting a squat, the spotter stands.....

with feet shoulder-width apart
directly behind the client
with hands beside clients ribs
and squats in unison with the client

Wrist Curl (Single Joint) major muscle groups

Targets the Forearm Flexors in the hand

Wrist Extension (Single Joint) major muscle groups

Targets the Forearm Extensors

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