1. Oral administration
2. IV sedation - Advantages / Diadvantages
Antianxiety drugs are usually administered by __?
This increases the opening of Chloride channels resulting in an enhanced inhibitory effect by GABA
1. Behavioral - reduces REM sleep
2. Anticonvulsant - increases the seizure threshold
3. Muscle relaxation
The pharmacologic effects of benzodiazepines are?
1. CNS depression, fatique, drowsiness
2. Alters preception of time, amnesia
3. Anterograde Amnesia (especially when used in conjunction with alcohol)
4. Respiratory effects minimal except in elderly
5. Cardiovascular - Decrease in BP and Heart Rate (none in low doses)
6. Vision - do NOT give to glaucoma patients
7. Increase or decrease in saliva flow -also can cause a metallic taste
8. Thrombophlebitis related to the glycol carrier
9. Cleft Lip and Palate potential if taken while pregnant
Some adverse reactions of benzodiazepines are?
Which anti anxiety agents can cause Physical and psychological dependence especially in large doses?
1. Other CNS depressants
7. Valporic acid can increase sedation
8. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors
Some Drug Interactions with benzodiazepines include __?
Benzodiazepine potentiator examples include?
Cause benzo levels to increase
Serotonin reuptake inhibitors do what to patients also taking "benzos?"
digoxin (heart med,) phenytion(dilantin - seizures,) probenicid(treatment for gout)
Benzodiazepines increase the effect of __?
3. Alcohol withdrawal
5. Conscious sedation
6. General anesthesia
7. Muscle spasms
Uses for Benzodiazepines include __?
1. Hypnotic dose
3. Conscious sedation
Management of dental patients taking Benzodizepines includes:
1. CNS depression
a. Normal dose
b. Higher dose
2. Analgesia: Barbituates contain NO pain properties
3. Anticonvulsant effect: phenobarbital
Pharmacological effects of barbiturates include __?
1. Sedative/hypnotic effects
2. Anesthetic doses
3. Acute poisioning
4. Sedative/hypnotic effects (more in elderly)
5. Anesthetic doses
6. Acute poisioning (at 15x the normal dose)
Adverse reactions to barbiturates include:
1. Zolpidem (Ambien)
2. Chloral Hydrate
Some examples of a Nonbarbiturate Sedative-Hypnotic are __?
50 mg/kg - mx 1 gram
What is the dosage of chloral hydrate for children?
Some examples of central Acting Muscle Relaxants are?
1. CNS problems
2. Effects the skeletal muscles
Pharmacologic Effects of Central Acting Muscle Relaxants are __?
1. back and neck pain
2. relief of muscle spasm
3. Pain associated with TMJ/TMD
Uses for central acting muscle relaxants are __?
1. Relief of pain and anxiety
2. Potentiation of the analgesia
3. Sedatives can induce excitation when given w/o analgesic to pt w/uncontrolled pain
4. Anxiety can lower pain threshold
Reasons to use Analgesic-Sedative combinations include?
1. Pts w/impaired elimination
2. Additive depression
3. Unsafe 2 perform certain duties
4. Psychological & physical dependence
6. Sedatives do NOT provide analgesia
7. Do not give to pregnant/lactating ♀
Analgesic-Sedative combination cautions include __?