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41 terms

A&P Chapter 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissue

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Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?
Osteoclast
Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?
parathyroid hormone
Vertebrae are considered ____ bones.
irregular
The universal loss of mass seen in the skeleton, which begins about the age of 40_______.
reflects incomplete osteon formation and mineralization.
A bone fracture perpendicular to the bone's axis is called a ______ fracture.
transverse
Wolff's law is concerned with _____.
the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it.
Cranial bones develop _____.
within fibrous membranes
Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tent to decrease blood calcium levels?
thyroid
Osteomylitis is _____?
due to pus-forming bacteria
Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. Apositional growth is _____.
the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage
Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth?
Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.
In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ____.
by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis.
Spongy bones are made up of a framework called ______.
trabeculae
Osteogenesis is the process of _____.
Bone formation
Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancey and youth is exclusively through ____.
interstitial growth of the epiephyseal plates.
Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is important for bone growth during infancy and childhood?
growth hormone
In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What might be the cause?
elevated levels of sex hormones
It is thought that remodeling or bone growth is in response to the forces placed on it. Which of the following hypotheses may explain how mechanical forces communicate with cells responding for bone remodeling?
Electrical signals direct the remodeling process
Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of _____.
calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D
Which fracture would be least likely in a 92 yr old?
greenstick
_____ are not one of the four cell types that populate bone tissue in adults.
Mesenchymal cells
Osteoalgia is ______.
pain in a bone
The structrue of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?
Compact bone
Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ______.
fat
The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the ______.
osteoblast
What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?
hyaline cartilage
In bone formation, a deficiency of growth hormone will cause _____.
decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage.
A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the _____ .
diaphysis
The term diploe refers to ______.
the internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
Select the correct statement concernng the location of blood-forming tissue.
The sternum(breastbone) is a good source of blood forming tissue.
Factors in preventing (or delaying) osteoporosis include ____.
drinking fluorinated water
Ossification of the ends of long bones _____.
is produced by secondary ossification centers.
Cartilage is found in strategic places in the human skeleton. What is responsible for the resilience of cartilage?
high water content
The most abundant skeletal cartilage type is _____.
hyaline
Which of the following is not the function of the skeletal system?
communication
The structural unit of compact bone is ____?
the osteon
Bones are covered and lined by protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ______.
osteoblasts and osteoclasts
The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called _______.
Perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
The canall that runs through the core of each osteon( the Haversian canal) is the site of _____?
blood vessels and nerve fibers
The small spaces in bone tissue that are holes in which osteocytes live are called _____.
lacunae
For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?
An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.