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What are risk factors for upper tract cancer?
Balkan descent, smoking, ? coffee consumption, analgesic abuse, occupational exposure, Chinese herb (aristocolic acid)
What hereditary syndrome is associated with ureteral tumors, colon tumors, and other tumors?
Lynch syndrome II - autosomal dominant defect in DNA mismatch repair gene hMLH1 and hMSH2. Associated with lots of tumors: colon, ureteral, uterine, pancreatic, ovarian
T/F Ureteral invasion is more common than bladder invasion
Prognosis is typically better for RP tumors
What type of tumor are 90% of upper tract cancers?
Small percentage squamous, adeno, and inverted papilloma
What is Balkan nephropathy?
Interstitial nephritis that causes renal failure in Balkans. Cause unknown. Have 100-200 fold greater risk of UTUC and more likely to develop bilateral disease
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