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14 terms

Upper tract urothelial cancer

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What are risk factors for upper tract cancer?
Balkan descent, smoking, ? coffee consumption, analgesic abuse, occupational exposure, Chinese herb (aristocolic acid)
What hereditary syndrome is associated with ureteral tumors, colon tumors, and other tumors?
Lynch syndrome II - autosomal dominant defect in DNA mismatch repair gene hMLH1 and hMSH2. Associated with lots of tumors: colon, ureteral, uterine, pancreatic, ovarian
T/F Ureteral invasion is more common than bladder invasion
True
Prognosis is typically better for RP tumors
What is a T3 upper tract tumor?
Invasion into sinus/peri-ureteral fat or renal parenchyma
What laser is safer in the ureter?
Holmium:YAG (shallower penetration)
Which laser is better in the RP?
Nd:YAG (works by coagulative necrosis and has deeper penetration)
What should you do after upper tract antegrade ureteroscopy?
Second look in 4-14 days
What is the recurrence rate for retrograde ureteroscopic management of ureteral tumors?
30%
What is the most common complication of upper tract instillation of drugs?
Sepsis
What type of tumor are 90% of upper tract cancers?
UC
Small percentage squamous, adeno, and inverted papilloma
What is Balkan nephropathy?
Interstitial nephritis that causes renal failure in Balkans. Cause unknown. Have 100-200 fold greater risk of UTUC and more likely to develop bilateral disease
What is a good indicator of stage in ureteral cancer?
Grade
What is the most important prognostic factor in ureteral cancer?
Grade
Where is the majority of upper tract UC?
70% distal ureter
25% mid ureter
5% proximal ureter