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Terms for the Exam


is approx. 2 billion years old

Life begin approximately

1 billion years ago

Earlier fossils place man

about 1.7 million years old

Earliest finds have been named

Java Man, Africa and Pecking Man, China/Asia

Man survived the ice ages because of his/her

Reasoning ability and use of fire

Cro-Magnon Man

First European ancestor
- dated about 70,000 years ago
- fossils found in France

Homo sapiens means

wise or thinking man

characteristics of the Homo sapiens

completely upright
- brain capacity similar to modern man
- made use of caves, fire, clothing, common language, lived in groups but not communities
- man's development is divided into there eras

Paleoilithic is what age

the old stone age

Mesolithic is what age

the middle stone age

Neolithic is what age

the new stone age

Man started to

began farming
- domesticated animals
- building of permanent structures
- organized a system of defense
- developed common language, religion, and government
- man migrated from Africa to the Mediterranean Sea area
- as the population increased man


man began to organize into groups
- developed - individual communities, individual governments, individual gods


was located between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers
and the location supported farming

What did the Sumerians develope?

they developed a system of writing, polytheistic religion,wheeled vehicles, used bronze, city-states developed,war,and developed math skills


pictorial representation drawn in wet clay
- meaning wedge


advancement on pictograph
- shaped with a square ended stylus
- and was used by used by the Babylonian and Persian societies

The Sumerians were first to use

360 degrees for a circle, 60 minutes for a minute and burial rites

the royals

burial rites were primarily for

Burial rites

- tombs carefully constructed on sacred land
- skeletons richly adorned with clothing and jewels
- servants/ military buried with the departed- voluntary- to serve in the afterlife

polytheistic religion

man existed to serve the gods

hierarchy of priests






used bronze

an alloy of copper and tin

developed math skills

applied to architecture- new construction


new construction built over old structures- mounds


united the city-states of Mesopotamia
- first empire crumbled after Sargon's deaths
- literature excavated illustrates development of the culture


leader of a group of Sumerians

Epic of Gilganerals

man who survies tests to benefit his people

Sargon had knowledge of

anatomy, surgery, algebra, geometry, astronomy


was the King of Babylon
- Long period of warning among the city-states, emerged
- had codes of justice and responsibility

Hammurabi was noted for creating a

noted for creating a code of written laws which included rights of women

the crimes of code of written laws

Crimes included theft, adultery, false accusations- punishment death

Code of responsibility

a professional toward their client - eye for an eye code of justice

Hummurabi religion was:

Polytheistic and chief god was Marduk
- Biblical towers of babel

Biblical towers of babel was built by

built by Hammurabi as a focal point in his capital city

Hammurabi's death

death after a 46 year rule, begin the decline of the Sumerian society


the use of iron weapons allowed them to conquer and rule what was Babylon
- Both a society skilled at war and in the acts
- They were conquered by Nebuchadnezzar


was a strong leader united area nations and expanded the empire to included the Mediterranean Sea
- conquered Assyrians
- he rebuilt the Babylonian society


were trades with a knowledge of sailing
- empire collapsed from invading tribes

Babylonians traded

woven fabrics, wool, grains was traded by


Nile River villages evolved into two kingdoms
- united into one nation under the leadership of Menes
- Egyptian religion

There is two parts of Egypt

Upper Egypt (Kingdom)
Lower Egypt ( Kingdom)

Egypt government

centralized government developed into a hereditary monarchy
- government served the gods/goddesses
- Pharaoh was the link and would become a god upon his death

Egyptian religion


Amon- Re

was the most powerful of the gods
- represented the sun
- Pharaoh derived his authority from him

Encompassed every aspect of life

health, farming, marriage, children, death


- patterned after nature - the Nile River rose and receded each year
- Pharaoh was the only one who had to be preserved; he would take care of his people
1. for silk and water needs
- pyramids


constructed to house the Pharaoh and his worldly goods after death
- also included temples and housing for priests and attendants

Egyptian social structure

1) Pharaoh and immediate family
2) Viziers
3) scribes
4) general free population of Egypt
5) slaves


individuals selected by the Pharaoh and declared to be noble and their families


individuals trained to read, to write/ keep records, to understand math


men, women, and children brought to Memphis as trophies/ proof of military strength

- hieroglyphics and hieratic
- engineering
- development of mathematics
- astronomy and the development of a calendar
- exploration by land and by boat
- pyramids

Old Kingdom achievements

hieroglyphics and hieratic

everyday language/ writing


known as the Step Pyramid
- first pyramid architect,
- built for Pharaoh Zoser,
- located at Sakkara
- Known as the Pyramid

Pyramids at Giza

built for Cheops and Kufu
- 481 feet high
- 6 million tons of stone
- consists of three pyramids
- Built for Pharaoh Kufu
- Contain 6 million tons of stone
- Faced with limestone

Pharaoh Ammenerndant 1 was in what era


Pharaoh Ammenerndant 1

- Reunited Egyptian people and government
- Declared that Amon - Re was the supreme god
- Declared that pharaoh was god
- Pharaoh gave the general population the right to be mummified
- Gave the general population a percentage of the tax money collected in a year

Almose 1

First pharaoh of the New Kingdom eras


- Female pharaoh
- Enriched/ expanded Egypt's agriculture
- Began building program
- Encouraged the arts - painting, sculpture, mosaics
- Greatest success was the establishment of peace within Egypt and among her neighbors

Amenhotep IV

- Attempted to convert Egyptians from polytheism to monotheism
- changed his name to Akenaton
- changed resulted in civil disorder which weakened Pharaoh's authority


Amenhotep IV replaced them with him the one and only god


a) Also known as The Boy King
b) Son of Amenhotep IV
c) Died at the age of 19 - reason for death - speculative
d) Returned Egypt to polytheism - restored internal calm
e) Short time on the throne, few accomplishments, not a strong leader

Ramses II

- Organized Egyptian military - drove Hitities out of Egypt - Battle of Kadesh
- Embarked on a massive building program - temples- Abu Simbel
- Expanded Egyptian borders, improved trade, strengthened military
- Biblical time of Moses - " Set my people free", Ten Commandments, Red Sea
- Egyptian power began to decline - slowly

Cleopatra - 31 B.C

- Last pharaoh of Egypt
- Threatened by invasion of Roman legions
- fell in love and died for Marc Antony

Marc Antony

Roman general - relationship between them forced a show down between
- Egypt and Rome - Roman won


A powerful seafaring people,
- dominated trade in the eastern Mediterranean
- They lived on Crete
- art suggests that women held a higher rank than in most neighboring cultures


a large island on the southern edge of the Aegean Sea

Minoan's pottery

produced painted pottery
- traded that pottery, along with swords, figurines, and vessels of precious metals

Minoans art and culture

Minoans also exported their art and culture.
- These included a unique architecture, burial customs, and religious ritual.

Minoan culture

their culture had a major influence on Greece

Minoan Trading

Trading turned Crete into a "stepping stone" for cultural exchange throughout the Mediterranean world advanced and thriving culture( art, architecture, government)

King Minos

Minos was a king who owned a Minotaur. Minos kept for power
- He kept the monster locked inside a labyrinth or maze


a half-human, half-bull monster

Minoans Religion

- religious polytheistic or monotheistic
- A great Mother Earth Goddess seems to have ruled over the other gods of Crete
- They sacrificed bulls and other animals to their gods


after the Crete's declined, the most powerful traders along the Mediterranean
- they mainly lived in the area now known as Lebanon

Phoenicians city - states

ever united into a country.
- founded a number of wealthy city-states with one another
- The first cities in Phoenicia, such as Byblos, Tyre, and Sidon, were important trading centers.

The Phoenicians' most important city-states in the eastern Mediterranean

were Sidon and Tyre
- known for their production of red-purple dye, and Byblos, a trading center for papyrus

Phoenicians built colonies along the northern coast

northern coast of Africa and the coasts of Sicily, Sardinia, and Spain

The greatest Phoenician colony in North Africa


Phoenicians traded goods like

wine, weapons, precious metals, ivory, and slaves
- Craftspeople who worked in wood, metal, glass, and ivory

Phoenicians a writing system

a writing system that used symbols to represent sound
- Phoenicians needed a way of recording transactions clearly and quickly


one sign was used for one sound the word alphabet comes directly from the first two letters of the Phoenician alphabet
- aleph and beth ink from sea life like sea shell or murex on papyrus

Ancient Trade Routes

trading connected the Mediterranean Sea with as South and East Asia
- Several land routes crossed Central Asia and connected to India
- Two sea routes began by crossing the Arabian Sea to ports on the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea.
- traders either went overland to Egypt, Syria, and Mediterranean countries, or they
- continued to sail up the Red Sea. To cross the Arabian Sea Phoenician traders made crucial contributions to world civilization.

Palestine - site of three past societies

1) Phoenicians
2) Philistines
3) Romans


ancient home of the Hebrews

Legacy of the Hebrews

is their influence on Western Culture ( Europe, U.S)
- Hebrews legacy includes: laws, literature, moral codes
- Because of this legacy Hebrews, Christians, and Idlamic groups have common believes and standards for living in the Promised Land


sat at the crossroads of Asia and Africa
- Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea allowed for transportation and trade


home of the Hebrews
- bordered by Jordan River and Mediterranean Sea
- promised to the Hebrews according to the Bible


God of the Hebrew


first five books in the Hebrew Bible
- also called the Old Testament by Christains


chosen by God to lead the Hebrews to Canaan
- his descendants of Abraham moved to Egypt

Hebrew religion

believd in a monotheistic relgion
- it bonded by the covenant


bond/ promise/agreement between God and the Hebrews


had the Hebrews settled in Egypt
- Status in Egypt went from guests to slaves\
- Movement out of Egypt to freedom in Canaan
- Moses led the Hebrews 40 years wandering in the desert
- Mount Sinai


Hebrew celebration in memory of their release of slavery/ release from Egypt

Mount Sinai

considered by the Hebrews as a holy mountain
- Moses spoke to God
- Moses received the 10 commandments
-10 Commandments formed the basics for civil and religious law for European and American societies
- Canaan

Hebrew Kings

Saul, David, and Solomon

King Saul

United the Jewish tribes/ began to form a Jewish nation
- Established Jerusalem as the nation's capitol city and was a hebrew king

King Solomon

- His mothers is Bathsheba - her story is linked to John the Baptist
- Build strong / thriving economy based on trade
- Built what is known as Solomon's Temple - Wailing Wall
-Ark of the Covenant - held the 10 Commandments
- Engaged in a building campaign which created a huge national debt
- After his death the Jewish nation split into two parts over this debt
- The nation of Israel was formed and the nation of Judah remained

Babylonian Captivity

Babylonia eventually taken over by the Persians and then by the Greeks and then by the Romans
- Tribute
- Israel
- Judah

Tribute -

money or goods paid by a weaker nation to a stronger nation


captured and occupied by the Assyrians


captured by the Babylonians/ Solomon's temple destroyed


is a mountainous peninsula on the Mediterranean Sea
- includes 2,000 island in the Aegean and Ionian Seas

Greece culture, government and economy were shaped by

the terrain
- lack of open land for farming, the lack of precious metals, and timber required that the people of this society utilized the seas to transport and to trade.


- name was taken from the largest of the Greek settlements
- Developed trade relations with the Minoans and developed the trade language, writing, religion, art,
- Troy - major city - state

Trojan War

cause unknown - myths/stories exist i.e. legend: Prince of Troy kidnapped Helen, the most beautiful woman in the world, " Her face would launch a thousand ships". Helen was the wife of a Greek king

Trojan Horse

to branch the walls of the fortress a hollow horse was constructed
- the interior held Trojan soldiers
- it was left outside the gates as a symbol of respect. The horse was wheeled into the city and at night the soldiers exited the horse, opened the gates and then took the city

Mycenaean society collapse

reason unknown, the disorganized, settlements were invaded and taken by a group called the Durians

Oral traditions

returned in the absence of an accepted writing style. Homer rose to prominence as the chief story teller. He composed narrative poems celebrating past heroic deeds


Is an epic poem retelling the Trojan War- Recounts the heroic deeds of Achilles and Hectar
- Highlights the moral code, athletic ability and courage of the Greeks


a collection of myths/stories/ poems centering on the gods and goddesses of the Greek culturea) Offered to the common man an explanation of life, nature, and death
- Greek gods/ goddesses were adopted by the Roman society
Examples Zeus - ruler of the Greek gods - lived on Mt. Olympus with his wife Hera/ Athena - goddess of wisdom - honored by naming the city - state Athens for her

Greek City -States

Dorian and Mycenaean societies combined and developed a new Greek society
- Communities remained individual the form of governments adopted by these city - states became more structured or formal
- Four styles of government developed and have lasted up to the present


a single man became the spokesperson for the community


landowning families emerged as the spokesperson/ leader of the community


government headed by a few individuals


an individual, promising stability and reform took control
- usually fro m a military background


- named for the goddess Athena
- Created a representative government
- forms of democracy
- citizens have direct input into the laws of the city-state

Draco's Law

- Gave to the people of Athens a written code of law and a code of justice
- Code of justice usually recommended death - small crime or large
- Reforms to the Athenian law code continued with time:
- Recognized class distinction - wealthy / landowners at top
- Women, debtor slaves and foreigners given few rights


limited to the so ns of the wealthy
- Taught: reading, writing, math , science, history, poetry, music
- Wealthy male only educated set the norm in European education until 1945
- Included were also debate, logic and athletics

Women were taught by their Mothers to be good wives

- Cooking
- Child rearing
- Managing a house ( handling money and servants)
- Entertaining - recite/ compose poetry and music to entertain her husband's guests
- were Spartan

Greek city

state isolated from the others by geography- Developed a military state
- Government controlled by landowning families
- Military service was the duty of every citizen from the age of 7 to 60
9) "Come home with your shield or on it"
- Women exercised decision making ability when the men were at war

Persian War

- Before iron weapons the military consisted of the elite/ landowners they were the only ones who could afford the metals necessary for weapons and armour
- Iron weapons were more durable and cheaper to make, opened up the military to the average citizen


formation of men all fully armed and disciplined to fight a war

Greece v. Persia

Darius was the Persian king
- amasses a huge land force to conquer Athens


a field and site of the final battle between Greece and Persia
- Greece turned the tide and won the battle, word went back to Athens of the victory -
26 miles race

Edward Gibbon

- British historian 1790's
- Wrote The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
- He believed the Roman era where absolute power governed with virtue and wisdom

Arnold Toynbee

1) A 20th century British historian( modern day)
2) He believed the Roman era to be a stalemate (no progress) in both government and cultural development

He wrote A Study of History - deals with the rise, development and fall of societies/ nations

military actions

farmers, did not participate or encourage

Etruscan government was a

- government headed by a king

king selected 100 Latin farmers

and elevated them to advisors to the king
- known as the a Patrians

Patricians developed into

the noble class/ upper class of h) Latin society

Plebian class

formed the middle/ lower classes of society

Slave class

orignal purpose of the group was to illustrate military superiority as trophies

beginnings of Rome

509 B.C.


republic has two elected officials
- who served for 1 year


the right to veto a law or tax was given to the plebeian assembly
- translation - I forbid

Laws of the 12 Tables

written by the plebian assembly of tribes to safeguard their rights

Punic Wars

Punic is Latin for Phoenician
- Phoenician society great sailors, well developed trade routes, wealthy society
- Rome turned foot into sailors/oarsmen

First Punic War

- Rome conquered Sicily, then Sardinia, then Corsica
- Each conquered area paid tribute to Rome

Second Punic War

Rome vs. Hannibal
- Hannibal used elephants to cross the Alp Mountain range in winter
- Monumental task - took Rome by surprise
- Roman general - Fabius Maximus - used guerilla type warfare to defend Rome from Hannibal
- Maximus opened a second front - launched an attack on Carthage located in North Africa
- Rome defended Carthage - added Spain to its territory/ empire
- Victory also increased Rome's income from tribute

Third Punic War

- Carthage rebelled against Rome
- Roman legion surrounded the city and starved the people into submission
- Sold survivors into slavery and added North Africa to Roman empire

Mare Nostrum

Latin phrase translates to mean in English - Our Sea Rome controlled all the land which bordered the Mediterranean Sea
- Benito Mussolini who ruled Italy in the 1930's through World War 2 - promised the people of Italy to return Italy to the days of Mare Nostrum
- Results of Punic War


a postion of men who kept tax records, the population count, and voting records


was a plebein who was given the authority to speak in the Roman Senate

Roman founded by a group of

Latin farmers who did not participate or encourage military actions

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