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203 terms

World History 1

Terms for the Exam
STUDY
PLAY
Earth
is approx. 2 billion years old
Life begin approximately
1 billion years ago
Earlier fossils place man
about 1.7 million years old
Earliest finds have been named
Java Man, Africa and Pecking Man, China/Asia
Man survived the ice ages because of his/her
Reasoning ability and use of fire
Cro-Magnon Man
First European ancestor
- dated about 70,000 years ago
- fossils found in France
Homo sapiens means
wise or thinking man
characteristics of the Homo sapiens
completely upright
- brain capacity similar to modern man
- made use of caves, fire, clothing, common language, lived in groups but not communities
- man's development is divided into there eras
Paleoilithic is what age
the old stone age
Mesolithic is what age
the middle stone age
Neolithic is what age
the new stone age
Man started to
began farming
- domesticated animals
- building of permanent structures
- organized a system of defense
- developed common language, religion, and government
- man migrated from Africa to the Mediterranean Sea area
- as the population increased man
city-states
man began to organize into groups
- developed - individual communities, individual governments, individual gods
MESOPOTAMIA
was located between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers
and the location supported farming
What did the Sumerians develope?
they developed a system of writing, polytheistic religion,wheeled vehicles, used bronze, city-states developed,war,and developed math skills
pictograph
pictorial representation drawn in wet clay
- meaning wedge
cuneiform
advancement on pictograph
- shaped with a square ended stylus
- and was used by used by the Babylonian and Persian societies
The Sumerians were first to use
360 degrees for a circle, 60 minutes for a minute and burial rites
the royals
burial rites were primarily for
Burial rites
- tombs carefully constructed on sacred land
- skeletons richly adorned with clothing and jewels
- servants/ military buried with the departed- voluntary- to serve in the afterlife
polytheistic religion
man existed to serve the gods
hierarchy of priests
...
temples
...
ziggurat
...
used bronze
an alloy of copper and tin
developed math skills
applied to architecture- new construction
tells
new construction built over old structures- mounds
Sargon
united the city-states of Mesopotamia
- first empire crumbled after Sargon's deaths
- literature excavated illustrates development of the culture
Akkadians
leader of a group of Sumerians
Epic of Gilganerals
man who survies tests to benefit his people
Sargon had knowledge of
anatomy, surgery, algebra, geometry, astronomy
Hammurabi
was the King of Babylon
- Long period of warning among the city-states, emerged
- had codes of justice and responsibility
Hammurabi was noted for creating a
noted for creating a code of written laws which included rights of women
the crimes of code of written laws
Crimes included theft, adultery, false accusations- punishment death
Code of responsibility
a professional toward their client - eye for an eye code of justice
Hummurabi religion was:
Polytheistic and chief god was Marduk
- Biblical towers of babel
Biblical towers of babel was built by
built by Hammurabi as a focal point in his capital city
Hammurabi's death
death after a 46 year rule, begin the decline of the Sumerian society
Assyrians
the use of iron weapons allowed them to conquer and rule what was Babylon
- Both a society skilled at war and in the acts
- They were conquered by Nebuchadnezzar
Nebuchadnezzar
was a strong leader united area nations and expanded the empire to included the Mediterranean Sea
- conquered Assyrians
- he rebuilt the Babylonian society
Babylonians
were trades with a knowledge of sailing
- empire collapsed from invading tribes
Babylonians traded
woven fabrics, wool, grains was traded by
EGYPT
Nile River villages evolved into two kingdoms
- united into one nation under the leadership of Menes
- Egyptian religion
There is two parts of Egypt
Upper Egypt (Kingdom)
Lower Egypt ( Kingdom)
Egypt government
centralized government developed into a hereditary monarchy
- government served the gods/goddesses
- Pharaoh was the link and would become a god upon his death
Egyptian religion
polytheistic
Amon- Re
was the most powerful of the gods
- represented the sun
- Pharaoh derived his authority from him
Encompassed every aspect of life
health, farming, marriage, children, death
Afterlife
rebirth
- patterned after nature - the Nile River rose and receded each year
- Pharaoh was the only one who had to be preserved; he would take care of his people
1. for silk and water needs
- pyramids
pyramids
constructed to house the Pharaoh and his worldly goods after death
- also included temples and housing for priests and attendants
Egyptian social structure
1) Pharaoh and immediate family
2) Viziers
3) scribes
4) general free population of Egypt
5) slaves
Viziers
individuals selected by the Pharaoh and declared to be noble and their families
scribes
individuals trained to read, to write/ keep records, to understand math
slaves
men, women, and children brought to Memphis as trophies/ proof of military strength
- hieroglyphics and hieratic
- engineering
- development of mathematics
- astronomy and the development of a calendar
- exploration by land and by boat
- pyramids
Old Kingdom achievements
hieroglyphics and hieratic
everyday language/ writing
Imhotep
known as the Step Pyramid
- first pyramid architect,
- built for Pharaoh Zoser,
- located at Sakkara
- Known as the Pyramid
Pyramids at Giza
built for Cheops and Kufu
- 481 feet high
- 6 million tons of stone
- consists of three pyramids
- Built for Pharaoh Kufu
- Contain 6 million tons of stone
- Faced with limestone
Pharaoh Ammenerndant 1 was in what era
MIDDLE KINGDOM ERA
Pharaoh Ammenerndant 1
- Reunited Egyptian people and government
- Declared that Amon - Re was the supreme god
- Declared that pharaoh was god
- Pharaoh gave the general population the right to be mummified
- Gave the general population a percentage of the tax money collected in a year
Almose 1
First pharaoh of the New Kingdom eras
Hatsheput
- Female pharaoh
- Enriched/ expanded Egypt's agriculture
- Began building program
- Encouraged the arts - painting, sculpture, mosaics
- Greatest success was the establishment of peace within Egypt and among her neighbors
Amenhotep IV
- Attempted to convert Egyptians from polytheism to monotheism
- changed his name to Akenaton
- changed resulted in civil disorder which weakened Pharaoh's authority
ATON
Amenhotep IV replaced them with him the one and only god
Tutankhamen
a) Also known as The Boy King
b) Son of Amenhotep IV
c) Died at the age of 19 - reason for death - speculative
d) Returned Egypt to polytheism - restored internal calm
e) Short time on the throne, few accomplishments, not a strong leader
Ramses II
- Organized Egyptian military - drove Hitities out of Egypt - Battle of Kadesh
- Embarked on a massive building program - temples- Abu Simbel
- Expanded Egyptian borders, improved trade, strengthened military
- Biblical time of Moses - " Set my people free", Ten Commandments, Red Sea
- Egyptian power began to decline - slowly
Cleopatra - 31 B.C
- Last pharaoh of Egypt
- Threatened by invasion of Roman legions
- fell in love and died for Marc Antony
Marc Antony
Roman general - relationship between them forced a show down between
- Egypt and Rome - Roman won
Minoans
A powerful seafaring people,
- dominated trade in the eastern Mediterranean
- They lived on Crete
- art suggests that women held a higher rank than in most neighboring cultures
Crete
a large island on the southern edge of the Aegean Sea
Minoan's pottery
produced painted pottery
- traded that pottery, along with swords, figurines, and vessels of precious metals
Minoans art and culture
Minoans also exported their art and culture.
- These included a unique architecture, burial customs, and religious ritual.
Minoan culture
their culture had a major influence on Greece
Minoan Trading
Trading turned Crete into a "stepping stone" for cultural exchange throughout the Mediterranean world advanced and thriving culture( art, architecture, government)
King Minos
Minos was a king who owned a Minotaur. Minos kept for power
- He kept the monster locked inside a labyrinth or maze
Minotaur
a half-human, half-bull monster
Minoans Religion
- religious polytheistic or monotheistic
- A great Mother Earth Goddess seems to have ruled over the other gods of Crete
- They sacrificed bulls and other animals to their gods
Phoenicians
after the Crete's declined, the most powerful traders along the Mediterranean
- they mainly lived in the area now known as Lebanon
Phoenicians city - states
ever united into a country.
- founded a number of wealthy city-states with one another
- The first cities in Phoenicia, such as Byblos, Tyre, and Sidon, were important trading centers.
The Phoenicians' most important city-states in the eastern Mediterranean
were Sidon and Tyre
- known for their production of red-purple dye, and Byblos, a trading center for papyrus
Phoenicians built colonies along the northern coast
northern coast of Africa and the coasts of Sicily, Sardinia, and Spain
The greatest Phoenician colony in North Africa
Carthage
Phoenicians traded goods like
wine, weapons, precious metals, ivory, and slaves
- Craftspeople who worked in wood, metal, glass, and ivory
Phoenicians a writing system
a writing system that used symbols to represent sound
- Phoenicians needed a way of recording transactions clearly and quickly
phonetic
one sign was used for one sound the word alphabet comes directly from the first two letters of the Phoenician alphabet
- aleph and beth ink from sea life like sea shell or murex on papyrus
Ancient Trade Routes
trading connected the Mediterranean Sea with as South and East Asia
- Several land routes crossed Central Asia and connected to India
- Two sea routes began by crossing the Arabian Sea to ports on the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea.
- traders either went overland to Egypt, Syria, and Mediterranean countries, or they
- continued to sail up the Red Sea. To cross the Arabian Sea Phoenician traders made crucial contributions to world civilization.
Palestine - site of three past societies
1) Phoenicians
2) Philistines
3) Romans
Canaan
ancient home of the Hebrews
Legacy of the Hebrews
is their influence on Western Culture ( Europe, U.S)
- Hebrews legacy includes: laws, literature, moral codes
- Because of this legacy Hebrews, Christians, and Idlamic groups have common believes and standards for living in the Promised Land
Palestine
sat at the crossroads of Asia and Africa
- Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea allowed for transportation and trade
Canaan
home of the Hebrews
- bordered by Jordan River and Mediterranean Sea
- promised to the Hebrews according to the Bible
Yahweh
God of the Hebrew
Torah
first five books in the Hebrew Bible
- also called the Old Testament by Christains
Abraham
chosen by God to lead the Hebrews to Canaan
- his descendants of Abraham moved to Egypt
Hebrew religion
believd in a monotheistic relgion
- it bonded by the covenant
Covenant
bond/ promise/agreement between God and the Hebrews
Moses
had the Hebrews settled in Egypt
- Status in Egypt went from guests to slaves\
- Movement out of Egypt to freedom in Canaan
- Moses led the Hebrews 40 years wandering in the desert
- Mount Sinai
Passover
Hebrew celebration in memory of their release of slavery/ release from Egypt
Mount Sinai
considered by the Hebrews as a holy mountain
- Moses spoke to God
- Moses received the 10 commandments
-10 Commandments formed the basics for civil and religious law for European and American societies
- Canaan
Hebrew Kings
Saul, David, and Solomon
King Saul
United the Jewish tribes/ began to form a Jewish nation
- Established Jerusalem as the nation's capitol city and was a hebrew king
King Solomon
- His mothers is Bathsheba - her story is linked to John the Baptist
- Build strong / thriving economy based on trade
- Built what is known as Solomon's Temple - Wailing Wall
-Ark of the Covenant - held the 10 Commandments
- Engaged in a building campaign which created a huge national debt
- After his death the Jewish nation split into two parts over this debt
- The nation of Israel was formed and the nation of Judah remained
Babylonian Captivity
Babylonia eventually taken over by the Persians and then by the Greeks and then by the Romans
- Tribute
- Israel
- Judah
Tribute -
money or goods paid by a weaker nation to a stronger nation
Israel
captured and occupied by the Assyrians
Judah
captured by the Babylonians/ Solomon's temple destroyed
Greece
is a mountainous peninsula on the Mediterranean Sea
- includes 2,000 island in the Aegean and Ionian Seas
Greece culture, government and economy were shaped by
the terrain
- lack of open land for farming, the lack of precious metals, and timber required that the people of this society utilized the seas to transport and to trade.
Mycernean
- name was taken from the largest of the Greek settlements
- Developed trade relations with the Minoans and developed the trade language, writing, religion, art,
- Troy - major city - state
Trojan War
cause unknown - myths/stories exist i.e. legend: Prince of Troy kidnapped Helen, the most beautiful woman in the world, " Her face would launch a thousand ships". Helen was the wife of a Greek king
Trojan Horse
to branch the walls of the fortress a hollow horse was constructed
- the interior held Trojan soldiers
- it was left outside the gates as a symbol of respect. The horse was wheeled into the city and at night the soldiers exited the horse, opened the gates and then took the city
Mycenaean society collapse
reason unknown, the disorganized, settlements were invaded and taken by a group called the Durians
Oral traditions
returned in the absence of an accepted writing style. Homer rose to prominence as the chief story teller. He composed narrative poems celebrating past heroic deeds
Iliad
Is an epic poem retelling the Trojan War- Recounts the heroic deeds of Achilles and Hectar
- Highlights the moral code, athletic ability and courage of the Greeks
Mythology
a collection of myths/stories/ poems centering on the gods and goddesses of the Greek culturea) Offered to the common man an explanation of life, nature, and death
- Greek gods/ goddesses were adopted by the Roman society
Examples Zeus - ruler of the Greek gods - lived on Mt. Olympus with his wife Hera/ Athena - goddess of wisdom - honored by naming the city - state Athens for her
Greek City -States
Dorian and Mycenaean societies combined and developed a new Greek society
- Communities remained individual the form of governments adopted by these city - states became more structured or formal
- Four styles of government developed and have lasted up to the present
Monarchy
a single man became the spokesperson for the community
Aristocracy
landowning families emerged as the spokesperson/ leader of the community
Oligarchy
government headed by a few individuals
Tyrants
an individual, promising stability and reform took control
- usually fro m a military background
Athens
- named for the goddess Athena
- Created a representative government
- forms of democracy
- citizens have direct input into the laws of the city-state
Draco's Law
- Gave to the people of Athens a written code of law and a code of justice
- Code of justice usually recommended death - small crime or large
- Reforms to the Athenian law code continued with time:
- Recognized class distinction - wealthy / landowners at top
- Women, debtor slaves and foreigners given few rights
Education
limited to the so ns of the wealthy
- Taught: reading, writing, math , science, history, poetry, music
- Wealthy male only educated set the norm in European education until 1945
- Included were also debate, logic and athletics
Women were taught by their Mothers to be good wives
- Cooking
- Child rearing
- Managing a house ( handling money and servants)
- Entertaining - recite/ compose poetry and music to entertain her husband's guests
- were Spartan
Greek city
state isolated from the others by geography- Developed a military state
- Government controlled by landowning families
- Military service was the duty of every citizen from the age of 7 to 60
9) "Come home with your shield or on it"
- Women exercised decision making ability when the men were at war
Persian War
- Before iron weapons the military consisted of the elite/ landowners they were the only ones who could afford the metals necessary for weapons and armour
- Iron weapons were more durable and cheaper to make, opened up the military to the average citizen
Phalanx
formation of men all fully armed and disciplined to fight a war
Greece v. Persia
Darius was the Persian king
- amasses a huge land force to conquer Athens
Marathon
a field and site of the final battle between Greece and Persia
- Greece turned the tide and won the battle, word went back to Athens of the victory -
26 miles race
Edward Gibbon
- British historian 1790's
- Wrote The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
- He believed the Roman era where absolute power governed with virtue and wisdom
Arnold Toynbee
1) A 20th century British historian( modern day)
2) He believed the Roman era to be a stalemate (no progress) in both government and cultural development

He wrote A Study of History - deals with the rise, development and fall of societies/ nations
military actions
farmers, did not participate or encourage
Etruscan government was a
monarchy
- government headed by a king
king selected 100 Latin farmers
and elevated them to advisors to the king
- known as the a Patrians
Patricians developed into
the noble class/ upper class of h) Latin society
Plebian class
formed the middle/ lower classes of society
Slave class
orignal purpose of the group was to illustrate military superiority as trophies
beginnings of Rome
509 B.C.
consuls
republic has two elected officials
- who served for 1 year
veto
the right to veto a law or tax was given to the plebeian assembly
- translation - I forbid
Laws of the 12 Tables
written by the plebian assembly of tribes to safeguard their rights
Punic Wars
Punic is Latin for Phoenician
- Phoenician society great sailors, well developed trade routes, wealthy society
- Rome turned foot into sailors/oarsmen
First Punic War
- Rome conquered Sicily, then Sardinia, then Corsica
- Each conquered area paid tribute to Rome
Second Punic War
Rome vs. Hannibal
- Hannibal used elephants to cross the Alp Mountain range in winter
- Monumental task - took Rome by surprise
- Roman general - Fabius Maximus - used guerilla type warfare to defend Rome from Hannibal
- Maximus opened a second front - launched an attack on Carthage located in North Africa
- Rome defended Carthage - added Spain to its territory/ empire
- Victory also increased Rome's income from tribute
Third Punic War
- Carthage rebelled against Rome
- Roman legion surrounded the city and starved the people into submission
- Sold survivors into slavery and added North Africa to Roman empire
Mare Nostrum
Latin phrase translates to mean in English - Our Sea Rome controlled all the land which bordered the Mediterranean Sea
- Benito Mussolini who ruled Italy in the 1930's through World War 2 - promised the people of Italy to return Italy to the days of Mare Nostrum
- Results of Punic War
censors
a postion of men who kept tax records, the population count, and voting records
tribune
was a plebein who was given the authority to speak in the Roman Senate
Roman founded by a group of
Latin farmers who did not participate or encourage military actions
Roman senate was formed by
members of the Patrician class
First Triumvirate
Roman government was divided among three men to make governing more efficient
- formed by three man: Pompey, Crassus, Caesar
Pontifix Maximus
the title was given to Octavian, it gave him authority over roman religion and made the powers of the emperors hereditary
Romans Culture
combination of Etruscan, greek, and Latin societies
Pax Romana
years of Roman Peace under the leadership of Augustus Caesar
Ideas of March
Julius Caesar assassinated on this date
Carthage
a city on the Northern Coast of Africa
Pyrrhic Victory
a military victory in which the result or victory is not worth the cost
'' divide and conquer''
means to separate our enemy to win
Latin League
a union formed by the Latin tribes for mutual protection
William the Conqueror - from Normandy
France invaded England in an attempt to gain the throne and to control England, his opponent was Harold, an Anglo - Saxon( Norms & Saxons - Robin Hood terms)2) William the Conqueror won the war - Harold was killed by an arrow piercing his eye
3) William claimed all of England for himself, he punished all the lords who supported Harold, he awarded land to those who supported him, and made the swear absolute loyalty to him. This public oath centralized the government of England.

William controlled and in France - Normandy and he and those who came after
d) Feudal weapons
1) Armor - could be very stylized - weighed minimum 30 pounds - warriors hoisted on to horse - alisted of the horse - if they fell off resembled turtle on back
2) Lances, sword, mace ,axe, bow and arrow, catapult( stone and fire) boiling oil from castle wall gargoyle
Feudal Wars
a) War face constant: boundary disputes, greed, family honor
b) Usually war erupted between two lords/ rarely spread to include many lords
c) Victor was determined by capturing the lord/hold for ransom then released
King
a) Elected by the lords from among the lords
b) Length of rulle depended on popularity/ success in war
c) Lords and vassals owned the king military service, annul fee or tax, loyalty
d) King replaced when conditions/ popularity waivered
e) Feudal system lacked unity
Fief
Land owned by a lord and managed by a vassal
Charlemagne
means Charles the Great
Vikings
society of skilled farmers, sailors, traders, warriors
- attacked in Europe resulted in Vikings settlements
Middle Ages or Medieval Period
This era of independent city - states the European nations emerge
- occupations, language, foods
History
is the story of man's past told in chronological order it may be influenced by many factors, such as chronological
Factors which influenced history
a) Government politics
b) Technology
c) Language
d) Climate
e) Economy
f) Religion
Renaissance
intellectual rebirth
Portugal and Spain
monarchs able to tax the people and spend it as they (monarchs) wished
Crusades
Pope sponsored was ( Holy Wars)
remove from the Holy Lands the
Muslims/ Turkish influences
European culture met Asian culture
a) Cooked food/ charcoal/ovens
b) Spices for foods
c) Wovern clothing - silks
d) Jewelry - fine gold/ silver
e) Paved roads
f) Mail delivery
g) Compass - astronomy - astrolabe
Overland routes
a) First method employed to transport goods from the East (Asia) to West (Europe)
b) Successful but large risks such as: weather and bandits
c) Water appeared to be safer
d) Portugal and Spain invested money in ship building, navigation schools
- Marketed idea in Italy - rejected
- Marketed idea in Portugal - rejected
- Marketed idea in Spain - accepted by Isabella
- Furished three ships Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria
- Made four voyages/ never set foot on North America
- Greatest contribution: mapping wind patterns
Amerigo Vespucci
sea captain
- sailed North/South America coastlines. Artist on board sketched outlines
- taken to German mapmaker
- named new land masses the Americas
Balboa
first European to see the Pacific
Magellan
first European to circumnavigate the globe. Named Pacific Ocean claimed 130 islands for Spain - called them the Philippines( Philip of Spain)
Cortes(z)
conquered Aztec nation of Mexico
- Wealth impressed Spain
- Used disease/gunpowder to control
- Disease( smallpox) proved to be the
greater weapons
Augustus Caesar
named his wife( Livia) son as his successor, Tiberius
- Son of Livia
- Former Romansoldier - autere, aloof, tactless
- Upheld policties of Augustus, time as emperor conservative
- Disliked by Romans, ordered large number of murders out of fear
Caligula ( little boots)
- Tiberius chose a nephew him
- Named to become emperor because Tiberius wanted to be a fond momory
- Killed his father, to prevent him from punishing Caligula
- Believed he was a god, married his sister
- Brought chaos to Rome, assassinated by a group of Senators
Claudius
was chosen after Caligula was murdered a) Chosen emperor upon the death of Caligula by German soldiers who guarded the emperors
b) He stuttered and limped - family was ashamed of him
c) Well eduicated, wrote books on Roman history
d) Restored order to the Roman empire
e) Extended citizenship to all governed by Rome
f) Conquered and controlled Britian by Rome
g) Established governamental departments to increase efficiency
h) Murdered/poisoned by his wife and her son Nero
Nero
step son of Claudius became rule after Claudius was murdered a) Became emperor at the age of 16, early years of rule were peaceful
b) Taught by Seneca - reowned author/philosopher
c) Killed his mother
d) Disregarded Roman culture and forced the Greek culture on the empire
e) Remembered for burning the poorer sections of the city of Rome and for persecuting the members of the Christian religion - used the Roman Colosseum
f) Popularity dwindled, Senate of Rome objected to his policies,
committed suicide whichleft the governed of Rome exposed to civil wars
Charlemagne
means Charles the Great
chivalry
a medieval code of conduct
Saladin
a skilled Muslsm leader
sacrament
rites of the church which lead to salvation
monastery
Christian men called monks lived here and renouced worldly gods
simony
the selling of Church positions and titles
vernacular
the accepted everyday language of a group
Magna Carter
written by English lords, signed by King John guarantees basic rights of man
Renaissance
refers to the revival of art, literature and learning
common law
a unifed body of English laws
serf
member of the peasant class bound to the place of their birth
Gothic
a style of architecture used to build Christain churches
tithe
a pledge to the Church for ten percent of your yearly income
humanism
intellectual movement that focuses on haman potential and achievement
bubonic plague
responsible for the deaths of one - third the population of Europe
troubador
traveling poet- muscians
Thomas Aquinas
wrote that Christains doctrine may be proven through human logic
vassal
the recipent of the fief
Franks
a Germanic tribe lead by Clovis
three field system
method of conservation to improve crop yield
Johann Gutenburg
a German citizen is credited with inventing the printing press
- the first book was the bible