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Chapter 20


tall annual cereal grass bearing kernels on large ears


What the Aztecs called themselves, they migrated from the north, reaching the Valley of Mexico in the 1200s AD.


group from the north that invaded central Mexico; were first wandering warriors; built their capital city at Tenochtitlan; increased their power until they dominated central Mexico; built causeways, pyramids, marketplaces, and palaces; adopted many customs from other cultures; used chinamapas for farming; militaristic society; known for human sacrifice and dedication to the sun god; ended when conquered by Spanish explorers in the 1500s


a payment made by a less powerful state or nation to a more powerful one

aztec trade

was contolled by small class of merchants; gold, jewls, feathered garments, cacoa, and animal skin, merchants had to defend themselves, traded from central america to us border


Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields.


a communal village built by Indians in the southwestern United States


the largest Indian tribe in the United States today; famous for their beautiful woven rags and silver jewelry


A term which designates a confederacy of 5 tribes originally inhabiting the northern part of New York state, consisting of the SENECA, CAYUGA, ONEIDA, ONONDAGA and MOHAWK.


a member of the small group of Quechuan people living in the Cuzco valley in Peru who established hegemony over their neighbors to create the great Inca empire that lasted from about 1100 until the Spanish conquest in the early 1530s

inca empire

Largest Empire ever built in South America; territory extended 2,500 miles from north to south and embraced almost all of modern Peru, most of Ecuador, much of Bolivia, and parts of Chile and Argentina; maintained effective control from the early 15th century until the coming of Europeans in the early 16th century. As the most powerful people of Andean America, the Inca dominated Andean society until the coming of Europeans; spoke Quechua language.


steplike ledges cut into mountains to make land suitable for farming


an accounting device created by the Incas which was comprised of a set of knotted strings that could be used to record data.

inca trade

Not very impressive, in fact, there were not many merchants or skilled artisans. The government didn't allow people to be independent merchants, thus, no professional market/merchant economy. Rather, the Inca empire supported an agricultural economy and home-made crafts.

inca roads

14,000 mile road network that stretches across the Inca Empire.

australian foragers

People who support themselves by hunting wild animals and gathering wild edible plants and insects, first people in Australia

pacific islanders

Had detailed knolwedge of marine life, were consummate mariners, using wind, wave and currents to navigate over great distances.

long-distance voyages

pacific islanders inhabited every habitable island in the Pacific

sweet potatoes

There are two theories for how this plant spread across oceania and eventually wound up in SA. one-way drifting theory by thor heyerdahl. and the two-way travel theory. Another piece of evidence that explain these travel theories is the native name of this plant that is in SA, kumara.

island society

traded between islands, the further away however the more isolated, population growth, increase in complexity of political and social structure

pacific island religion

priests were intermediaries between gods and humans, gods of war + agriculture common, marae Mahaiatea on Tahiti huge step pyramid

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