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Chapter 8: Group Cohesion
Terms in this set (21)
A dynamic process reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member affective needs
attractiveness of the group
The individual's desire for interpersonal interactions with other group members and a desire to be involved in the group's activities
The benefits that a member can derive by being associated with the group
The degree to which group members work together to achieve common goals and objectives
The interpersonal attractions among group members
The normative forces holding a group together
The individual characteristics of group members
Style and behaviors that professionals exhibit and the relationships they establish with their groups
Group task characteristics (individual vs. team sports), group productivity norms, desire for group success, group roles, group position, and team stability
A tool for m easuring social cohesion
Requiring team members to work together and coordinate their actions
Requiring much less, if any, team interaction and coordination for the achievement of goals
direction of causality
Whether cohesion leads to performance success or performance success leads to cohesion
Both the turnover rate for group membership and the length of time group members have been together
Define task and social cohesion.
In measuring cohesion, researchers have found that it is multidimensional and comprises both task and social cohesion. Team cohesion is a dynamic process reflected in the group's tendency to stick together while pursuing its goals and objectives. Task cohesion refers to working together as a team to achieve goals, whereas social cohesion refers to the interpersonal attraction among team members.
Describe the conceptual model of cohesion.
Carron's model of cohesion indicates that four areas affect the development of cohesion: environmental (team size, scholarships), personal (motivation, social background), team (team norms, team stability), and leadership (leadership style, leader's goals) factors. These factors do not exist in isolation but rather interact to affect both task and social cohesion.
Discuss how cohesion is measured.
Cohesion has traditionally been measured through simple questionnaires. However, newer instruments such as the Group Environment Questionnaire take into account the multidimensional nature of cohesion. In addition to questionnaires, sociograms can be used to focus specifically on the social aspects of cohesion in a team or group.
Understand the cohesion-performance relationship.
Researchers have been examining the relationship between cohesion and performance in sport for more than 30 years. However, this relationship is complex, and studying it involves three factors: measurement of cohesion, type of task, and direction of causality. Both task and social cohesion and interactive and coactive tasks are associated with positive effects on performance. In addition, the cohesion-performance relationship appears to be circular: Team success enhances cohesion, which leads in turn to success.
Better understand factors associated with cohesion.
Cohesion is positively related to other important constructs, such as satisfaction, conformity, social support, group goals, and stability. In addition, cohesion has been shown to be related to role acceptance, group status, decision-making style, sex, collective efficacy, group norms, ability and experience, imagery, and self-handicapping. This knowledge is important to consider when coaches, teachers, and exercise leaders want to enhance cohesion in their teams or groups.
Identify guidelines for building team cohesion.
Researchers have recently developed and outlined interventions for enhancing task and social cohesion in both sport and exercise settings. However, group members, as well as coaches or leaders, must assume responsibility for developing group cohesion.
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