= reduction of bone mass & failure of bone to form.
1. Affects 20 million & 80% are women
2. 1/3 of all orthopedic problems are related to osteoporosis.
3. Common affected areas: Vertebral column/back, femoral neck (problems & fractures), humorous, distal radial & ulnar (wrist fractures)
4. Causes: hormonal deficiencies (estrogen), nutritional deficiencies (Ca), drinking large amounts of caffeine, alcohol (impairs absorption of Ca), decreased physical activity
5. Medication causes bone loss: chemotherapy, thyroid medications, seizure medications, corticoid steroids (erodes the joints).
6. Diseases that cause bone loss: diabetes, liver disease, certain cancers, hyperthyroidism