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The form of political society that combines centralized government with a high degree of ethnic and cultural unity


The form of society in which family line, power, and wealth are passed primarily through the female side.


A small vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails


Concerning the general characteristics of a given population, including such factors as numbers, age, gender, birth and death rates, and so on.


A Spanish conqueror or adventurer in the Americas.


An economic system characterized by private property, generally free trade, and open and accessible markets.


The Spanish labor system in which persons were held to unpaid service under the permanent control of their masters, though not legally owned by them.


A person of mixed Native American and European ancestry.

Great Ice Age

Extended period when glaciers covered most of the North American continent


Staple crop that formed the economic foundation if Indian civilization


Important Mississippian culture site, near present East St. Louis, Illinois


First European nation to send explorers around the west coast of Africa


Flourishing West African kingdom that had its capital and university at Timbuktu


Animal introduced by Europeans that transformed the Indian way of life on the Great Plains

small pox, malaria, yellow fever

Among the major European diseases that devastated Native American populations after 1492


Disease originating in the Americas that was transmitted to Europeans after 1492

Treaty of Tordesilla

Treaty that secured Spanish title to lands in the Americas by dividing them with Portugal


Wealthy capital of the Aztec empire

Popé's Rebellion

Indian uprising in New Mexico caused by Spanish efforts to suppress Indian religion


Indian people of the Rio Grande Valley who were cruelly oppressed by the Spanish conquerors


Roman Catholic religious order of friars that organized a chain of missions in California

Ferdinand and Isabella

Financiers and beneficiaries of Columbus's voyages to the New World

Hernan Cortés

Known for the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire

Francisco Pizzaro

Know for the Spanish conquest of the Incan Empire

Lake Bonneville

Inland sea, left by melting glaciers whose remnant is the Great Salt Lake

Dias and da Gamma

Portuguese navigators who sailed around the African coast


Italian-born explorer who thought that he had arrived off the coast of Asia rather than on unknown continents


Female Indian slave who served as interpreter for Cortés


Powerful Aztec monarch who fell to Spanish conqueror Cortés


Legendary founder of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy

St. Augustine

Founded in 1565, the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in United States territory

John Cabot

Italian-born navigator sent by the English to explore the North American coast in 1498

Junipero Serra

Franciscan missionary who settled California

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