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final study guide

what was Alfred Wegener's profession?


in what direction do opposing plates in plate boundaries move along a divergent boundary?

opposite directions

spreading centers are also known as

mid oceanic ridges

in what direction do opposing plates move along a convergent boundary?

towards each other

What happens to the crust in transform bounday?

two plates slide past each other

what is relative time measurement?

it measures time by stating whether an event is younger or older than another event

Describe the Law of Superposition

it states that if rock layers ae undisturbed, younger rocks lie above older rocks and the oldest rocks are at the bottom

what is radioactive atom?

atoms with too much energy in their nuclei

what is half life?

The time it takes for half of the material to decay.

The modern model of the solar system

sun-mercury-venus-earth-the moon-mars-asteroid belts-jupiter-saturn-uranus-neptune-kuiper belt-oort cloud

what is rotation in sun-earth-moon systems?

the circular movement of an object around another

One earth rotation is equal to?

one day

What is revolution?

The Earth spins on its axis around the sun

one revolution is equal to what?

One year or 3651/4 days

what is an ellipse

Flattened circle or oval

what is aphelion

Point in the earth's orbit where the earth and sun are the farthest apart

what is perihelion

Point in the earth's orbit where the earth and sun are the closest

what causes the different seasons?

the tilting of the earth's axis and its orbit around the sun

define equinoxes

The equinoxes are when the Sun's rays directly hit the equator while crossing it. The Vernal Eqinox (March 21st) has the sun's rays moving north and the Autumnal Equinox (September 21st) has the sun's rays moving south across the equator.

what two dates do the equinoxes occur

March 21st and Sept 21st

what is used to classify planets

by location lnner vs outer
by composition Terrestrial planets vs Gas planets vs Ice Giants

what is used to classify asteroids

composition and location

wha is used to classify comets

composition and origin- Kuiper Belt (short period) or Oort Cloud (long period)

In the origin of the solar system (Nebular Theory)starts with?

nebula made of dust and gas

what is solstices

When the sun reaches its greatest distance north or south of the equator twice each year

what is lunar phase of the moon

the portion of the moon as seen by an observer, usually Earth. it is the differnt shapes of the moon you see from Earth. The pase ofthe moon you see depends on how much of the sunlit side of the moon faces Earth

what is waxing (lunar phase)

if the left side of the moon is dark then the light part is glowing

what is the waning(lunar phase)

the portion of the moon you can see

when do an eclipse occur

when te moon's shawo hits Earth or Earth's shadow hits the moon, an eclipse occurs. when an object in space comes between the sun and a third objects, it casts a shadow on thatobject causing an eclipse.

what causes the various lunar phases?

the oons revolution around the Earth

what are the eight lunar phases as seen from Earth?

new moon-waxing crescent-waxing quarter-waxing gibbous-full moon-wanning gibbous-waning quarter-waning crescent.

eclipses: what is umbral shadow

the darkest portion of the moon's shadow

eclipes: what is penumbral shadow

the lighest shadow on earth's surface

Lunar eclipses: light source

the sun

lunar eclipses: light blocker

the earth

lunar eclipses: shadow receiver

the moon

lunar eclipes: lunar phase

lunar eclipse

what is total lunar eclipses

the moon is completely within theearth's umbral shadow, reddish color

what is partial lunar eclipses

the moon is partly in the umbral shadow and partly in the penumbral shadow

what is penumbral eclipses

the moon is partly in or completely in tepenumbral shadow only

what is a lunar eclipse

When the earth is between the sun and the moon, and the earth casts a shadow on the moon

what is a solar eclipse

When the moon is between the earth and the sun, and the moon cast its shadow on the earth

what is a total solar eclipse

the moon completely covers the sun. the corona is visible. You are in the umbral shadow

what is a partial solar eclipse

the moon partly covers the sun. you are in the penumbral shadow

what is a annular solar eclipse

the moon does not competely cover the sun. A ring of unblocked sun light is visible around a black moon disk

what is tidal range

It is the difference between sea level at high tide and at low tide

what is light year

the distance light travels in a year. the distance that light travels in a vacuum in a yr. (9.5 trin km)

what is apparent magnitude (brightness)

the brightness of a star as it appears from earth

what is absolute magnitude (brightness)

how bright a star really is ad does not depend on distance from earth

what is the relationship between gravity and energy

greater mass=greater gravity=greater energy output

what is ther relationship between color and surface temperature

blue=hottest red=coolest

what is the relationship between apparent magnitude and distance

farther away=dimmer appraent magnitude

what is the relationship between absolute magnitude and distance

absolute magnitude is done at distance of 10pc or 32.6 LY

what is the relationship between magnitude and size (diameter)

larger diameter=brighter magnitude

stellar evolution all main sequence stars begin their lives how?

in the same wa

stellar evolutiion all main sequence stars are?

condense from a nebula
begin theri life on the main sequence of the H-R diagram

stellar evolution some new stars will begin their lives as?

blue to white supergiants above the H-R diagram

what is a tide

the rise and fall of ocean water that occurs every 12.5hrs .the water rises for about 6hr then falls for about 6hr on a regular cycle

what causes the tide cycle

the force of the moon's gravity on Earth. the sun's gravity also pulls the Earths waters

what causes high tides

the foce of the moon's gravity pulls earth toward the moon, leaving the water behind. the moon's gravity causes high tide on the side closest to the moon

what is low tides

low tidesoccur between the two high tides.water flows away

What are the two tides in tide cycle

spring tides and neap tides

what is spring tide and how often does it occur

it occurs twice a month: new moon and full moon phases.
the sun, moon and earth are nearly in a line during a new moon. the gravity of the sun and the moon pull in the same direction. Their combined forces produce a tide with the greates difference between consecutive low and high tides. this is called spring tides

what is neap tides and how ofter does it occur

it occurs twice a month: 1st quarter lunar phase and 3rd quarter lunar phase. During the moon's first quarter and third quarter, the line between the earth and the sun is at right angles to the line between earth and the moon. the sun's pull is at the right angles to the moon's pull. this produces a neap tide. the neap tide is a tide with the least difference between consecutive low and high tides

right angle pull is associated with neap tide or spring tides?

neap tides

the gravity of the sun and the moon pulling in the same direction is neap or spring?

spring tides

whtat is the approx difference int ime beteen hgh and low tides

. the complete cylce is about 12 hrs. 6-high 6-low

who was the person who therorized the continental drift

alfred wegener

what was alfred wegener's supporting evidence of the theory of continental drift

coastline fits the continents
geologic worik of other scientist(identical rocks in SA and Africa, folded mountain rages
fossils evdences found by scientist(glossopteris, mesosaurus)

what were problems with the continental drift therory

could not offer a reasonable explanation for continental movement through te earth's crust

continental drifts structure:

Laurasia(NA,Europe, Asia)
Gondwanaland(SA, Africa, Antarctica, India, Australia)

what is the theory of plate tectonics

this theory combines the basic concepts of Wegener's Continenta Drift theory with Hess's Sea Floor Spreading Theory

what is plate

continents fit like puzzle pieces, fossil evidence, paleomagnetism, the earth crust and upper mantle are broken into sections called plates.
plates move around on top of the mantle like rafts.

what is lithosphere

A rigid layer of rock., outer layer of earths structure includes the crust and and upper mantle, major component in plate tectonic movement

where are plate boundries located

along very active earthquake fault zones and volcanic regions

what happens to the crust in divergent boundary

where two plated diverge from one another

what is divergent boundary

A divergent boundary is a plate boundary ion which the plates move apart.

what is a tsunami

a train of sea waves traveling of the oceans surface, triggered by an earthquake or other disturbance of the seafloor, Seismic sea waves

what is the moment magnitude scale

A rating system that estimates the total energy released by an earthquake.

what is the shadow zone of an earthquake

an area on earths surface where no direct seismic waves from a particular earthquake can be detected

magma chamber

the pocket beneath a volcano where magma collects

Volcanoes are classified according to three things?

eruptive force

name the 3 frequencies of a volcanoe


name the 3 eruptive forcesof volcanoes


name the 3 composition of volcanoes

shield volcano\
composite cone
cinder cone

what is extinct volcanoe

a volcanoe that is dead and that is unlikely to erupt again

what is the relationship between plate tectonics earthquakes and volcanism

most earthquakes occur along plate boundaries
most volcanism occurs along plate boundaries

what is radiometric dating

this method relies on the fact that the rate of radioactive dcay will remain constant for any particular radioactive isotope

when will radiactive decay stop

when a new lighter stable atom is produced

what are the methods of measuring time: earth's history

relative time measurement(relative time can only be used to create a sequence of events(timeline) usually listed from oldest first to younges lat)
absolute time measurement (radioactive decay)

in the geocentric model of the solar system, what planet is in the middle

the earth

the earth is in the middle of what model

geocentric model

geocentric model

A representation of the universe in which starts and planets revolve around Earth. Ptolemy proposed the model., The idea that Earth is at the center of the solar system, Theory of the universe that states the earth is the center, and that the sun revolves around it.

heliocentric model

A representation of the relationship between the Sun and planets in which the planets revolve around the Sun. Copernicus proposed the model., the accepted model of our solar system with the sun in the center, Theory of the universe that states the sun is the center, and that the earth revolves around it., the model where Earth and other planets orbit the sun

volcanic regions include

subduction zones
divergent boundaries
hot spots
transform boundaries are NOT volcanic


(astronomy) a collection of star systems, large group of stars, dust, and gas held together by gravity; can be elliptical, spiral, or irregular, a collection of star systems

milky way

the galaxy containing the solar system, the name of our galaxy, the spiral galaxy containing the solar system

the milky way galaxy is what shape


big bang theory

(cosmology) the theory that the universe originated 20 billion years ago from the cataclysmic explosion of a small mass of matter at extremely high density and temperature, States that all galaxies originated from one huge mass of densely packed matter., the theory that all matter and energy in the universe was compressed into an extremely small volume that 13 billion to 15 billion years ago exploded and began expanding in all directions

stellar death is the death of what


stellar death of a star undergoes is directly related to its?


low mass stars (<0.7 s.m)

unknown, not enough time has passed for one to die

low mass stars (0.8-1.3 sm)

main giant>planetary nebula>white dwarf>black dwarf

medium mass stars(1.4-<4 sm)

main swquence>red supergiant>suernova>neutron star or pulsar

high mass stars(>5 s.m)

blue giant or spergiant>red supergiant>suernova>black hole

what is a black hole

region of space that has so much mass concentrated in it that there is no way for a nearby object to escape its gravitational pull.
if a netron stare core continues to collapse so close nothing can escape;not even light

spiral galaxy

a galaxy whose arms curve outward in a pinwheel pattern, galaxy with arms that make it resemble a pinwheel spinning in space; Milky Way is one

barred spiral galaxy

A galaxy that is similar to a spiral galaxy, except that the spiral arm pattern originates from a bar of material that passes through the nucleus of the galaxy., Spiral galaxies that have a straight bar of stars cutting across their centers.

elliptical galaxy


irregular galaxy

a galaxy that does not have a regular shape

the earth's orbit is what shape


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