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WH Chapters 4 and 5 Review
Terms in this set (43)
How did trade contribute to the development of Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations?
Minoan traders set up outposts throughout the Aegean world. From their island home in the eastern Mediterranean, they crossed the seas to the Nile Valley and the Middle East. Through contact with Egypt and mesopotamia, they acquired ideas and technology that they adapted to their own culture.
What impact did Mycenaean civilization have on later Greeks?
They absorbed Egyptian and Mesopotamian influences, which they passed on to later Greeks.
What values of the ancient Greeks are found in the poems of Homer?
Honor, courage, and eloquence.
Identify two ways that geography influenced Greece.
Seas provided safe harbors for ships and ideas, customs, and food tastes from surrounding continents were adapted.
How did noble landowners gain power in Greek city-states?
Defending the king.
How did the phalanx affect Greek society and government?
Glorified the individual and extended political rights to more citizens and they emphasized military virtues and stern discipline.
Describe the system of education in Sparta.
Put military training above everything else.
Describe the system of education in Athens.
Encouraged young men to explore many areas of knowledge.
What cultural ties united the Greek world?
Spoke the same language, honored the same ancient heroes, participated in common festivals, and prayed to the same gods.
Describe two effects of the Persian Wars.
Increased the Greeks' sense of their own uniqueness, they felt the gods had protected their superior form of government, and the Delian League was organized.
How did Pericles contribute to Athenian greatness?
The economy thrived and the government became more democratic.
How did the growth of the Athenian power lead to war?
Athens' influence began to dominate the other city-states of the Greek area. The city proceeded to conquer all of Greece except for Sparta and its allies, and became known as the Athenian Empire. This caused Sparta to take action against them.
Why did Plato reject democracy as a form of government?
Because it had condemned Socrates.
Describe the ideal form of government as set forth in Plato's Republic.
That the state should regulate every aspect of its citizens' lives in order to provide for their best interests. His ideal society was divided into three classes: workers to produce the necessities of life, soldiers to defend the state, and philosophers to rule. This elite class of leaders would be specially trained to ensure order and justice. The wisest of them, a philosopher-king, would have the ultimate authority.
What standards of beauty did Greek artists follow?
Balance, order, and beauty.
How were Greek plays performed?
In large outdoor theaters with little or no scenery. Actors wore elaborate costumes and sylized masks. A chorus sang or chanted comments on the action.
What were the topics of Greek poetry and plays?
Tragedy and comedy.
What was the extent of Alexander's vast empire?
He expanded the empire to stretch through Egypt and parts of India.
How did Alexander's conquests lead to a new civilization?
By introducing the culture, civilization and ideals of Hellenism to existing civilizations. Alexander's conquest lead to the Hellenistic Period which lasted 700+ years.
What new ideas did the Stoics introduce?
Preached high moral standards and that all people (including women and slaves, though unequal in society) were morally equal because all had the power of reason.
Describe two ways that the geography of Italy influenced the rise of Rome.
Italy is surrounded by water, aiding in transportation and trade. The mountain ranges were walls to block attack.
What reforms did plebeians win during the early republic?
The Table of Laws, which was the Roman legal system written down.
How did male and female roles differ in the Roman family?
Under Roman law the male head of the household or the father had absolute power in the family. He demanded total respect. Woman from all classes did major businesses from small shops to major ship yards. Woman gained greater freedom.
What were two reasons for Rome's success in expanding its power across Italy?
A highly trained and disciplined army and they built roads and fortified their towns for their army to get around.
How did Rome build an empire around the Mediterranean Sea?
Rome's conquest of the Italian peninsula brought it into contact with Carthage. Carthage ruled over an empire that stretched across North Africa and the western Mediterranean. Rome continued by expanding westward.
What problems contributed to the decline of the Roman republic?
Social and economic problems.
How did Augustus lay the foundation for stable government in the Roman empire?
He created an efficient, well-trained civil service to enforce the laws. High-level jobs were open to men of talent, regardless of their class. In addition, he cemented the allegiance of cities and provinces to Rome by allowing them a large measure of self-government. He also undertook economic reforms, ordered a census to make the tax system more fair, set up a postal service, issued new coins to make trade easier, put the jobless to work building roads and temples, and sent others to farm the land.
How did Greek culture influence the development of Roman civilization?
Rome absorbed and adopted from the Greek almost everything. Including their villages, Greek art, literature, philosophy, and science. The Romans adapted Greek and Hellenistic achievements.
How did Romans use technology to improve life in the empire?
Used engineering to build roads, bridges, and harbors. Used aqueducts for the wealthy to have water piped in and almost every city had boasted public baths.
What principles of law did Romans develop?
An accused person was presumed innocent until proven guilty. The accused was allowed to face the accuser and offer a defense against the charge. Guilt had to be established "clearer than daylight" through evidence. Judges were allowed to interpret the laws and were expected to make fair decisions.
What was Rome's policy toward most of the religions in the empire?
Rome tolerated the varied religious traditions. As long as citizens showed loyalty by honoring Roman gods and acknowledging the divine spirit of the emperor, they were allowed to worship other gods as they pleased.
Describe three basic teachings of Jesus.
Emphasized God's love, emphasized the importance of forgiveness, and taught the need for justice, morality, and service to others.
Why did many people find Jesus' ideas attractive?
Because they were attracted to a religion that incorporated the discipline and moderation of Greek philosophy.
What beliefs and practices did early Christians have in common?
They shared a common faith in the teachings of Jesus and a common way of worship.
Describe the crisis that afflicted the Roman empire after the Pax Romana ended.
A disruptive political pattern emerged, political violence and instability happened, the empire was shaken by disturbing social and economic trends, farmland lost its productivity, and poor farmers left their land and looked for protection from wealthy landowners.
List two ways in which Diocletian tried to ease the crisis.
Divided the empire into two parts: the wealthier eastern part and the western provinces. He also fixed prices for goods and services to slow inflation.
How did the invasion of the Huns weaken the Roman empire?
Under pressure from attacks, the Roman empire surrendered first Britain, then France and Spain. It was only a matter of time before foreign invaders marched into Italy and took over Rome itself.
What social problems contributed to the decline of the Roman empire?
The need to replace citizen soldiers with mercenaries testified to the decline of patrotism. The upper class, devoted itself to luxury and self-interest.
Compare and contrast politics, economics and social systems of Greece and Rome. Provide specific examples.
Greeks were Idealistic people with many philosophies and philosophers such as Socrates and Plato, while Romans were realistic and always made plans that were relevant and complete such as their roads all linking to Rome. Greek politicians could never unify since the empire was divided into city-states in which argument or alliance would be discussed such as the Delian league and their empire would consist of both democracy and oligarchy with an undefined gov., while Romans would all be unified making decisions for the good of the empire and had a unified form of governing with a democracy and with the senate and consuls. The Greeks like the Romans would have slaves and then a middle class consisting of artisans, merchants, and farmers and then a higher rich class. However Romans had another group called the plebeians-proletariats in which rights were given to them.
Explain the basic doctrine of Christianity and why this doctrine appealed to the poor and the powerless of the Roman empire. Provide specific examples.
The basic doctrine of Christianity was to be kind and giving to all the beings of the world. To always believe in one god and worship him and follow all the laws and teachings of the bible/church. Since the Roman government did not look upon the poor and powerless, these people felt that religion could be a form of protection and success in the later future.
How did geographic conditions make it easier to unite Italy than to unite Greece? Provide specific examples.
The land in Italy was much less rugged and more flat, making it easier to move around with trade involving water everywhere and flat land for a road system.
What kind of military, political, economic and social problems led to the Fall of Rome? Provide specific examples.
Military, Political, Economic, Social problems leading to decline
Military - patriotism declined because of mercenaries, invasions of Germanic people, Hun invasion
Political - struggle for power, game of thrones, corruption, too large empire
Economic - inflation, heavy taxes, over cultivation
Social - self serving upper class (self centered)
Roman Republic government
Romans took the best pieces of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy style governments. Rome had 2 Consuls, these people acted as kings. Their term was a year long. Then they had a senate of 300 people. These people could be from any class. In times of crisis, a dictator could be elected for 6 months.
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