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44 terms

Chapter 43 Science

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Reproductive System
Body system that produces, stores, nourishes, ad releases gametes
Testis
Male gonad that produces sperm and androgens.
Androgen
Steroid hormone in males involved in the development of male reproductive structures.
Ovary
Female gonad that produces ova and estrogens.
Estrogen
Steroid hormone in females involved in the development of the reproductive organs.
Puberty
Period of rapid growth and sexual maturation during which the reproductive system becomes fully functional.
Gonad
Reproductive gland that produces gametes and sex hormones.
Scrotum
External sac in which the testes are located.
Seminiferous Tubules
One of thousands of tiny tubules that make up the testes.
Testosterone
Principal male sex hormone that stimulates the development of many male sex characteristics.
Secondary Sex Characteristic
Sex characteristic that appears at puberty.
Epididymis
Structure in the male reproductive system attached to the seminiferous tubules in which sperm mature and are stored.
Vas Deferens
Tube that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
Seminal Fluid
Substance in which sperm are suspended that is produced by three glands in the abdominal cavity.
Semen
Combination of sperm and seminal fluid.
Urethra
Tube through which urine is released from the body.
Penis
External male reproductive organ; the organ through which the urethra connects to the outside of the body in humans and certain other animals
Ovum
Egg produced in an ovary.
Primary Follicle
Cluster of cells that surround an ovum and prepare it for release from the ovary.
Ovulation
Process that involves the release of a mature ovum from the ovary.
Fallopian Tube
One of two fluid-filled tubes in human females through which an ovum passes after its release from an ovary; location of fertilization.
Uterus
ORgan lying between the Fallopian tubes and the vagina in which a fertilized ovum can develop.
Vagina
Canal that leads from the uterus to the outside of the female body.
Menopause
Period after which follicle development no longer occurs and a female is no longer capable of bearing a child.
Menstrual Cycle
Process that involves the development and release of an egg for fertilization and the preparation of the uterus to receive a fertilized egg.
Corpus Luteum
Name given to the follicle after ovulation because of its yellow appearance.
Progesterone
Steroid hormone released by the corpus luteum.
Menstruation
Last phase of the menstrual cycle during which the lining of the uterus along with blood and the unfertilized ovum are discharged through the vagina.
Zygote
Fertilized egg cell.
Cleavage
Mitotic cell division of a zygote or early embryo.
Morula
Solid ball of cells that make up an embryo; in humans, this stage occurs four days after fertilization.
Blastocyst
Hollow structure in early human embryonic development that results after the morula form a fluid-filled cavity in the center.
Implantation
Process in early embryonic development in which the blastocyst attaches itself to the wall of the uterus and begins to grow inward.
Gastrulation
Process of cell migration during which the primary germ layers are formed in an embryo.
Ectoderm
Outermost primary germ layer in an animal embryo.
Mesoderm
Middle primary germ layer in an animal embryo.
Endoderm
Innermost primary germ layer in an animal embryo
Amnion
Membrane that surrounds and protects a developing embryo; in placental mammals such as humans, develops into the amniotic sac.
Chorion
Outermost membrane surrounding a developing reptile, bird, or mammal embryo; forms the placenta in placental mammals.
Placenta
Organ in placental mammals through which nutrients, oxygen carbon dioxide, and wastes are exchanged between embryo and mother.
Fetus
Unborn young of an animal during the later stages of development; in humans, the name give to embryo after eight weeks of development.
Umbilical Cord
Contains two arteries and one vein, connects the fetus to the placenta.
Amniotic Sac
fluid-filled structure that cushions and protects the developing fetus in placental mammals such as humans.
Labor
Series of rhythmic contractions that cause the opening of the cervix of the uterus to expand so that it will be large enough to allow the baby to pass through.