Biology Prentice Hall Chapter 2
Terms in this set (...)
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
An isotope (an atomic form of a chemical element) that is unstable; the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off detectable particles and energy.
A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
The electrons in the outermost shell (main energy level) of an atom; these are the electrons involved in forming bonds.
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
Atoms with a charge
the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
van der Waals forces
a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
Attraction between molecules of the same substance
An attraction between molecules of different substances
A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
A liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
A mixture in which particles can be seen and easily separated by settling or filtration
measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14
A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
A substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.
A solution that minimizes changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution.
A simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
Broken down to glucose to provide energy.
A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simplest type of sugar.
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
any of various macromolecules composed of nucleotid chains that are vital constituents of all living cells
A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
(RNA) single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
(DNA) nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose
A three dimensional polymer made of monomers of amino acids.
Building blocks of protein
a process in which one or more substances are changed into others
A chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction
A tangible artifact produced by means of either human or mechanical work, or by biological or chemical process.
Energy needed to get a reaction started
a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
A part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
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