40 terms

Biology Prentice Hall Chapter 2

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element
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
isotope
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
radioactive isotope
An isotope (an atomic form of a chemical element) that is unstable; the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off detectable particles and energy.
compound
A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
valence electrons
The electrons in the outermost shell (main energy level) of an atom; these are the electrons involved in forming bonds.
ionic bond
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
covalent bond
A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
ions
Atoms with a charge
molecule
the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
van der Waals forces
a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
cohesion
Attraction between molecules of the same substance
adhesion
An attraction between molecules of different substances
mixture
A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
solution
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
solute
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
solvent
A liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
suspension
A mixture in which particles can be seen and easily separated by settling or filtration
pH scale
measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14
acid
A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
base
A substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.
buffer
A solution that minimizes changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution.
monomer
A simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
polymer
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
carbohydrate
Broken down to glucose to provide energy.
monosaccharide
A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simplest type of sugar.
polysaccharide
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
lipid
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
nucleic acid
any of various macromolecules composed of nucleotid chains that are vital constituents of all living cells
nucleotide
A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
ribonucleic acid
(RNA) single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA) nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose
protein
A three dimensional polymer made of monomers of amino acids.
amino acid
Building blocks of protein
chemical reaction
a process in which one or more substances are changed into others
reactant
A chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction
product
A tangible artifact produced by means of either human or mechanical work, or by biological or chemical process.
activation energy
Energy needed to get a reaction started
catalyst
a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
enzyme
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
substrate
A part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes
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