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How did the colonists with strong roots in the past develop their own way of life?
•Freedom of Religion - practice any way you want - Separatists, Puritans, Quakers
•Self government
•Represetative govt
•Developed on schools, churches
How did Colonial Life Take Shape?
•They thought that they would find gold....but needed basics? Steal fron native Americans.
•Food - needed to farm, shelter and land. Main farmer creates plantation by a river, then communities form - leads to all trades
•Leads to Gentry, Indentured Servants, Middle Class
•Schools, Churches
How did the colonists break away from Britain and create a republican form of government?
•Created their own constitution
•Went to war
How did the relationship between Britain and the colonies fall apart?
•King wanted too much control
•Charters only allowed so much power to the people
•Wanted self government
•Many laws laid down by the British seemed unfair - Stamp Act, Townshend Acts, Quartering Acts
•Friction between British and colonists - Boston Massacre
•Repeal of Intolerable Acts
How did the French and Indian War draw the colonists together but increase friction with Britian?
•Albany Congress - Colonists got together to talk
•Some BFF wanted to create taxes to pay for overall war, others said should be handled individually by colonies
•Wanted to know what each colony was up against - Committees of Correspondance.
•Went to war together - all colonists - Battle of Duquesne
•Win Montreal from British rule
How did the British tax policies move the colonies closer to rebellion?
•Colonists did not think taxes were fair
•Felt they were being bullied into paying more for their imports - Townshend Acts, lose privacy - Quartering Acts. Colonists morale was low
•When Boston Tea Party happened over the Tea Act - King had the Intolerable Acts - colonist were outraged and fought back. - you can't say we can't have town meetings and so on.
How did American Revolution begin?
•Wanted self government, did their own constitution and wrote declaration of independence - preamble, grievances, natural rights and independence.
•King started sending British troops to the colonies to control them.
•Colonists are outraged
•Colonists started preparing for a war and collecting ammunition.
•King's soldiers heard that there was ammunition being stored in Concord
•Paul Revere sends message - shot around the world - Battle of Lexington and Concord starts war.
How did the American colonists gain their independence?
•The American Revolution - went to war
•Wrote declaration of independence, rebelled against their taxes, willing to sacrifice their life?
Why did many colonies favor independence?
•Far away, unfair tax policies, unfair quartering Acts, their own people.
•After they read about Common Sense
•They had created their own life and tired of being bullied
•Also religious reasons - practiced in a different way
•More and more different forms of religions, leads to different churches and a form of democracy.
How were the early years a critical time?
•New colonies, not well trained troops, lack of supplies
•Second Continental Congress - except Georgia - we all want independence
•Patriots v Loyalists v Neutrals
•Thomas Paine - Common Sense
•Olive Tree Petition.
•Divide/Friction between patriots and loyalists.
How did the effects of war widen?
•Men go to war, women take their jobs and roles
•Continental Congress prints money - valueless
•Soldiers - one year contract need more men - take boys who are young, men that are old.
•Offer freedom to slaves if they fight.
•Colonist losing - Thomas Paine writes The Crises
How did the Americans win the war and make peace?
•After attacks on Trenton, Delaware - Hessians.
•After winning Battle of Saratoga, French believed in them
•Alliance with France - get ammo and help, they go to war with Britain, diluting their forces
•Valley Forge
•Brits surrender and sign treaty
What role did compromise play in the creation of the Constitution?
•The Great Compromise
•The Three Fifths Compromise
•House of Reps - population
•House of Senate - 2 votes each
What are the basic tenets of the Constitution?
•Popular Sovereignty - when the people consent to be governed and spell out the rules on how this will take place.
•Limited Government - people grant the govt, limited powers to act
•Federalism - States keep some powers while giving up some to a strong central govt.
•Separation of Powers - govt separated into 3 branches - Legislative Branch(Congress makes laws), Executive Branch (president carries out laws) and Judicial Branch (interprets the laws as cases come up).
•Checks and Balances - Each branch can keep an eye on the other
•Individual Rights
How is each section of the Constitution related to the overreaching goals of the Founding Fathers?
•Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly and petition (express their ideas to the govt).
•Give states militias the right to bear arms - now need license to own a gun.
•Lodging for soldiers - permissible with consent of owner - govt cannot force anyone.
•Prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures
•Person must be charged with a specific crime - they will not be denied the right to life, liberty or property without due process of the law.
•Protects the rights of people in criminal cases - accused told charges against them
•Right of trial by jury in civil cases
•Forbids unreasonable high bail
•People retain certain rights above and beyond those mentioned in the Constitution.
•Powers not given to the federal government belongs to the states or the people
How did technology of the Industrial Revolution changed the way Americans lived?
•Light, electricity, plumbing, technology
•Textile Mills - spinning machine - Samuel Slater
•Arkwright invented the water frame
•Invention of steam have electricity to fuel machines
•Mass Production
•Interchangeable Parts
•Factories - mainly women and children started to work
How did urbanization, technology and social change affect the North?
•Needed more people
•Railroads, Roads, Canals were built
•Immigrants started arriving
• Nativist did not like this
How did cotton affect the social and economic life of the South?
•Cotton Gins - used to make 1lb per day now could pick 50lbs per day
•More slaves needed - critical to the economy
•Led to slave codes
How did Americans move West and how did they intensify the debate over slavery
•Roads, Turnpikes - toll
•Rail roads
•Canals were built
•Needed more slaves - slave codes
How did abolitionists try to end slavery?
•Freeing the slaves
•Killing southerners who had slaves
How did slavery end in the North?
What role did Frederick Douglas play in the abolitonist movement?
•Started speaking out in open forums - taught himself how to read
•Had open lectures
•Helped in underground movement
How did the Underground railroad work?
•People both white and black would help smuggle slaves out of the South
•The stations were safe houses - homes or churches
•Harriett Tubman
Why did some northerners oppose abolition?
•They needed cotton
•Did not wan't a war
How did the nation try but fail to deal with growing sectional differences?
•Tried with the compromises
•Because of slavery - South needed them for the economy, North were using own people.
•Led to questions on human rights.
How did the question of admission of new states to the Union fuel the debate over slavery?
•The Missouri Compromise - Missouri wanted to be a part of the union - North said free, South said slave
•Upset balance of power - solved with Maine
•Same problem with Kansas Nebraska Act
What was the compromise of 1850 and why did it fail?
•California - gold rush - wanted to be free state - South did not like
•Florida should be slave state
•Stricted Fugitive Slave Laws
•Creates Underground railroad - northerners don't listen and neither do abolotionists
•Banned slave trade in Washington
•More popular sovereignity
Why did John Brown's raid increase tensions between the North and South?
•Because he was an abolitionist who decided to go and fight colonists who had slaves so that he could free them
Why did the election of Abraham Lincoln spark the secession of Southern States?
•When becoming elected Stephen Douglas made out that he was anti slavery and an aboltionist
•Southern states needed their slaves to work in the cotton fields
•Thought Abraham Lincoln would come down on them hard
•States secede to create Confederate States, won constitution and President.
Why did each side in the Civil War think the war would be won easily?
•North - had more people and resources - could get people to fight and had ammunition - strategically they could win because they had more people.
•South - the best generals and expertise
•North would attack South by blockading their ports - no trade and no imports
•South - get alliances with Britain and Europe because they needed their cotton.
What were the causes and affects of the Emancipation of Proclamation?
•Abraham Lincoln was able to free slaves in the Union states
•Caused because they needed the slaves to fight in the war.
•Thought many slaves would come because of freedom.
How did the war affect people and politics in the North and South?
How did Lincoln and his generals turn the Tide of War?
•WAR IN THE EAST - George Mcclellan - went to peninsula SE of Richmond - slow and cautious - troops well trained. So slow that GW took 37,000 troops . McClellan went forward and retreated as he decided he needed more troops. The South led by Lee stopped them in Richmond. Lee hoped to win on Union soil. A spy gave McClellan Lee's strategy plan. He headed towards Antietam and the fights broke out. Lee's army had to retreat.
•McClellan replaced by Burnside, then Fighting Joe, replaced by Hooke, replaced by Meade.
•WAR IN THE WEST - Ulyssees Grant - seized most of Mississippi River - captured fort Henry then Fort Donelson. Grant goes South towards Tenessee River towards Corinth. Surprise attack from Confederation - Battle of Shiloh. Union forced confederates to withdraw from railroad center - also control of Tennessee and Mississippi River.
•Battle of Gettysberg - Confeds go to get shoes, union army attacks under General Meade. Fight over an open field - Union soldiers used shells and rifles. Confederates led Under General Lee
•Fall of Vicksburg - Lee's army on the way back. Vicksburg surrendered to General Grant - one of the last cities on the Mississippi river for them to capture - surrounded them under siege until they gave up - MAJOR TURNING POINT IN THE CIVIL WAR