Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Nutrition Exam 2
Terms in this set (26)
What are the different types of fatty acids?
saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acid. The saturated refers to the amount of hydrogens bonded to the carbon chain. Saturated means completely filled with hydrogens and mono means one spot is missing an H and thus there is a double bond and poly means many H's are missing and many double bonds.
What is the main characteristic that all fat have?
do not readily dissolve in water
Be able to identify names of fats by their chemical structure.
Triglycerides- 3 fatty acids and a glycerol molecule. Phospholipids- 2 fatty acids and phosphate group, one saturated and one unsaturated tail Sterols (cholesterol)- complex ring structure.
What are essential fatty acids? a. What are their properties and characteristics?
Essential fatty acids must be added to the diet to maintain health. Omega 3 and Omega 6 are essential. These omegas are polyunsaturated fats. Omegas produce eicosanoids which are in almost all major building blocks. Omega 3s thin blood = less blood clotting/heart attack, decrease inflammation
What are the functions of lipids? (The use of fats in the human body include?)
highest source of energy (9g where protein and carbs are only 4)
What are the structural makeup, and functions of triglycerides?
3 fatty acids on a glycerol
What are the properties and characteristics of phospholipids?
2 fatty acids on a glycerol with a phosphate group. Make up cell membranes
What are sterols? Why are they classified as a fat?
multi ring structure and classified as a fat because they do not readily dissolve in water.
What are the functions of cholesterol in the body? What type of foods contains cholesterol? What are this characteristics (see "Function of Cholesterol" slide)
A sterol is cholesterol and it forms hormones, bile acids, and are needed in cell membranes. Egg yolks have cholesterol.
How can you tell the difference between omega 6 & 3?
omega 6 has 6 Cs on the omega end to the double bonded carbon and omega 3 only has 3
What is the difference between "cis" and "trans" fatty acids?
cis is the natural form where the molecules sticking out are on the same side creating a kink in the chain. Trans are modified chains to have it at a diagonal and no longer a kink.
How is fat digested? Know locations, transport mechanisms and routes.
In the mouth a little short chain fatty acids are digested by lingual lipase, in the stomach gastric lipase digests short and medium chain fatty acids. Most fat digestion is done in the small intestine by bile acid and pancreatic lipase. In the small intestine bile acid is released to emulsify fat into smaller paricles. Then the pancreas releases lipase to break the fat down into monoglycerides and fatty acids. The monoglycerides and fatty acids are absorbed as micelles through the brush border and then reformed into triglycerides. cholesterol, protein, and phospholipids join with the triglyceride to form a chylomicron which enters the lymphatic system. Meanwhile short and medium chain fatty acids enter the portal vein to the liver then to the cardiovascular system . The chylomicrons in the lymphatic system then go to the cardiovascular system.
What are chylomicrons, VLDLs, LDLs, and HDLs?
a. What functions do they each serve in the body? (Ex: transports dietary or hepatic lipids to what part of the body?) b. Where and how are they made? c. Which ones transport cholesterol? And to what part of the body? d. What do chylomicrons and VLDL have in common?
They are all LIPOPROTEINS
a. transport dietary triglycerides (fat to fatty acids and monogylcerides then reformed to triglycerides) from small intestine to lymph then lipoproteins in the chylomicron break the triglycerides back to fatty acids where they can enter the blood then cells
b. they are made in SI from triglycerides protein and phospholipids combining.
c. LDL transports cholesterol made by liver and from other sources to cells. HDL transports cholesterol to other lipoproteins and liver.
d. Chylomicrons and VLDLs are both primarily composed of triglycerides.
VLDL- (VERY BAD)
a. carries lipids made and taken up by liver to body cells
b. produced and packaged by liver
a. carries cholesterol made by liver and such to cells
b. made by removing some (fatty acids) triglycerides from VLDL
HDL- (VERY GOOD)
a. helps remove cholesterol from cells and excrete it from the body
b. made by liver and SI from cholesterol from dying cells or lipoprotein metabolism.
Role of bile acids in fat digestion
bile acids act as an emulsifier of fat. They have an affinity for both fat and water so they take the floating fat in smaller chunks and bring it into the water so that enzymes like pancreatic lipase can access the fat to break it down
The major dietary factor to be concerned about in relation to Heart disease is?
What effect do dietary lipids have on blood cholesterol?
Which lipoprotein is associated with low risk for cardiovascular disease?
What foods are beneficial or detrimental in protecting against CVD?
beneficial- whole grain, veggies, fruit, fat free dairy, lean proteins. Detrimental- crap
the omega end of fatty acids has a _______ and the alpha end has a ________
methyl group CH3, carboxyl acid group
to determine if omega 3, 6, or 9...
look at omega end (methane CH3) and count all C's until double bond. Count the first C in the methane group AND the C in the double bond!
Do saturated or unsaturated fatty acids pack closer together?
saturated fatty acids do not have a double bond to cause a kink, therefore they pack tighter. Unsaturated fats have double bond/s and cannot get as close together- thus they are often liquid at room temperature. Eg lard is saturated (saturated fats found in animal products) and olive oil is unsaturated
Most fat in food and body are
fats usually contain
both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids
cis vs trans fatty acids
cis means same side and trans means opposite/diagonal. Trans not normally found in nature.
Cis forms a kink
most fatty acids on triglyceride are saturated or unsaturated
examples of saturated, monounsat and poly unsat and transfat
saturated (solid)- coconut oil, butter
monounsat- olive oil
polyunsat- safflower oil
transfat- margine, shortening
What does the stature/length for age reflect?
The color of most of the food at corner convenience stores is beige and brown. These beige and brown foods include:
Your male widowed patient is 82 years old and has arthritis in his hands. When performing a nutritional assessment for him, the nurse would particularly want to know what?
what are indicators of food insecurity
Sets found in the same folder
CNM: Research Methods
Nutrition (Semester 1)
Sets with similar terms
Chapter 6: Lipids (fats)
ch. 5 nutrition
Chapter 5: The Lipids (triglycerides, phospholipid…
Other sets by this creator
Yoga Teacher Training
Raintree Athletic Club Interview
WOLF level 1
Other Quizlet sets
Final Review Semester 1
CHAPTER 5 WORLD GEO TEST
International 101 Chapter 10 review
Introduction to Viruses