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23 terms

DNA/Meiosis/Genetics

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chromosome
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
meiosis
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
dna
a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
rna
ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in the production of protien
trna
transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
base pair rules
A+T and C+G
transcription
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
translation
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
codon
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
amino acid
monomer that makes up proteins; contains carboxyl and amino functional groups
protein
a class of nutrients that builds body tissues and supplies energy. protein is made of amino acids.
mutation
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
incomplete dominance
one allele is not completely dominant over the other allele
codominance
a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed
multiple alleles
three or more alleles of the same gene
dominant
observed trait of an organism that masks the recessive form of a trait
recessive
The inherited characteristic often masked by the dominant characteristic and not seen in an organism.
genotype
genetic makeup of an organism
phenotype
physical characteristics of an organism
homozygous
having two identical alleles for a trait
heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait
sex linked trait
a trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome or the Y chromosome in humans