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final exam


threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next


Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms


cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes


a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes


ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in the production of protien


transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome

base pair rules

A+T and C+G


(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA


(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm


A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.

amino acid

monomer that makes up proteins; contains carboxyl and amino functional groups


a class of nutrients that builds body tissues and supplies energy. protein is made of amino acids.


change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information

incomplete dominance

one allele is not completely dominant over the other allele


a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed

multiple alleles

three or more alleles of the same gene


observed trait of an organism that masks the recessive form of a trait


The inherited characteristic often masked by the dominant characteristic and not seen in an organism.


genetic makeup of an organism


physical characteristics of an organism


having two identical alleles for a trait


having two different alleles for a trait

sex linked trait

a trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome or the Y chromosome in humans

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