47 terms

(8) Joints

a&p chapter 8
where two or more bones meet
Functional Classification of Joints
(1) Synarthroses (Immovable)
(2) Amphiarthrosis (Slightly movable)
(3) Diarthroses (Fully movable)
ligaments that hold tooth in bony socket,
immovable joint,
Structural Classification of Joints
(1) Fibrous: (bone ends united by collagen)
sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses
(2) Cartilaginous: (bones united by cartilage)
synchondrosis, symphyses, synovial joints
Types of synovial joints
Planar, Hinge, Pivot, Saddle, Ball & Socket, Condyloid/Ellipsoid
Flexion, Extension, Hypertension
Flexion- bent knee
Extension-extend knee
Hypertension-bring leg back
Abduction, Adduction, Circumduction
Abduction-arms out
Adduction-arms in
Rotation, Lateral rotation, Medial rotation
Rotation- twisting
Lateral rotation- twisting out
Medial rotation- twisting in
Pronation, Supination
Pronation-palm down
Supination- palm up
Dorsiflexion, Plantar flexion
Dorsiflexion- heel down toes up
Plantar flexion- toes pointed down
Inversion, Eversion
Inversion-foot in
Eversion-foot out
Protraction, Retraction
Protraction- chin forward
Retraction- chin back
Elevation, Depression
Elevation-shoulders up
Depression- shoulders down
Opposition- thumb and index finger pinch. "OK"
Factors influencing Joint stability
(1) Shape of articular surface
(2) Ligaments
(3) Muscle tone
Disorders and Imbalances: Sprain
Sprain type 1- stretched ligament
Sprain type 2- ligaments torn slightly
Sprain type 3- ligaments torn completely
Lyme disease
deer ticks, bullseye rash, joint disease
Degenerative joint disease, non-inflammatory, only cartilage affected, deterioration of cartilage produces bone spurs and restricts movements, pain upon awakening and lessens with movement.
Gouty Arthritis
Uric acid crystals build up in joints-pain.
waste products of metabolism build up and deposited in cartilage causing inflammation and swelling. bones fuse.
Rheumatoid arthritis
Autoimmune disorder, cartilage attacked by immune system, inflammation and swelling, pain, joint fusion
examination of joint, small instrument, remove torn knee cartilage, small incisions
replacement of joint, total hip replaces acetablum and head of femur, plastic socket and metal head, knee replacement.
Treating a sprain:
Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation
(top to bottom)
clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, phalanges, metacarpals, femur, patella, fibula, tibia, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
cranial bones: lateral
cranial bones: lateral
cranial bone: posterior
cranial bone: posterior
cranial bone: inferior
cranial bone:inferior
carpal bones
tarsal bones
name vertebral disorder
name vertebral disorder
name vertebral disorder
what is the difference between the appendicular and axial skeleton?
the Axial lines the axis and the Appendicular include the appendages of the skeleton
What is a fontanel?
a fibrous connective tissue in the fetal skeleton, before fusing.
Weight bearing vertebrae are called?
Lumbar vertebrae (5)
Which vertebrae has transverse foramen?
Cervical Vertebrae (7)
What 7 bones make up the orbit of the eye?
Ethmoid, Palatine, Sphenoid, Frontal, Lacrimal, Maxilla and Zygomatic
Which bones are the keystone to the facial bones and the keystone to the cranial bones?
Facial keystone: Maxilla
Cranial keystone: Sphenoid
Where on the clavicle is the weakest spot and most likely to be broken?
the middle.
List 3 functions of sinuses.
Warm and moisten air,
lighten the skull,
enhance voice resonance.
knee joint
knee joint: