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RUSSIA's capital


ARMENIA's capital


AZERBAIJAN's capital


GEORGIA's capital


Russian Realm

The Russian Core, the Southeastern Frontier, Siberia, Transcaucasia, the Far East, and Russia's peripheries: Kaliningrad, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia. (pg. 102)

The Russian Core

region located in the area lying between Russia's western border and the Ural Mountains on the east (orange)

Russia's Southeastern Frontier

region located from the southeastern flanks of the Ural Mountains to the headwaters of the Amur River, and from the latitude of Tyumen to the northern zone of Kazakhstan (green)


vast region that extends from the Ural Mountains to the Kamchatka Peninsula; "the land of the sleeping" (light brown)

(Russia's external periphery)

region located between the Black Sea to the west and the Caspian Sea to the east; includes political entities: Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan (all former SSR's of Soviet Union) (purple)

The Russian Far East

region located east of the Southeastern Frontier to the Pacific coast, the island of Sakhalin, the Kamchatka Peninsula, and a narrow stretch of land along the northern shore of the Sea of Okhotsk (yellow)

Lake Baykal

world's deepest lake; the major inland water body of Russia's Eastern Highlands

Western Siberian Plain

the world's largest unbroken lowland

Aral Sea

Eurasia's Environmental Disaster; world's 4th largest lake located on Kazakhstan/Uzbekistan border, rivers into it were dammed, sea drying up and is polluted with agricultural runoff, creating a toxic cesspool.


Central Asian region south of Russia, created during fall of USSR. Includes: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan

Vladimir Putin

current president of Russia. Improved economy vastly by reasserting Kremlin control.

(Chechen Republic)

Federal subject of Russia (republic) that attempted to declare independence. Used as an example to warn others not to attempt independence through bombing, violence, and terror.

Cold War

long-term state of tension (political and military) between US along with its NATO allies and Russia. Build-up of nuclear weapons and military forces on both sides, though no action ensued.

Ural Mountains

boundary between Russia and Europe

Volga River

longest river in Europe

Altai and Tian Shan Mountain ranges

physiographic borders that are some of the world's tallest and most treacherous mountians

The Caucasus Mountains

physiographic border between Russia and the Transcaucasia region


world's largest land biome (home to many bears, wolves, and mushrooms)


the "Rim of Fire" and UNESCO World Heritage nature parks (100x larger than Yellowstone)

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