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Terms in this set (84)
What is the lymphatic system?
Body defense system that also helps balance tissue fluid levels and absorb fats from the digestive system
The ~3 mL of fluid per day that enters the lymphatic system is called what?
Each tube of the lymphatic system is called a _________.
Lymphatic vessel do not _______ lymph, but transport it in one direction: _______________.
circulate; from tissues to circulatory system
_________ (lymphatic capillaries) absorb fat in small intestines. Lymph here is called ________.
Invasive microorganisms and viruses
Lymphatic vessels have no __________, but only overlapping simple _________ epithelial cells.
What are the 2 major results of the "membrane" of lymphatic vessels?
1. very permeable to fluids and things floating in the fluids like pathogens
2. form 1- way valves from edges of overlapping cells to keep lymph flowing in one direction
Fluid leaves blood capillaries and enters _________ fluid.
Most fluid returns to blood capillaries, some enters ___________.
What are the 3 sources of pressure that cause lymph to flow?
1. Smooth muscle contractions in lymphatic vessel walls
2. Contraction of skeletal muscles nearby
3. Pressure changes in thorax from respiration
All lymph eventually enters right _________ or _________ before returning lymph to L or R subclavian veins.
Lymphatic duct; thoracic duct
___________________ empties at junction of right internal jugular and right subclavian veins.
Right lymphatic vessel
__________________ empties into junction of left internal jugular and left subclavian veins
What is the most inferior part of the thoracic duct?
What are the 4 organs that assist primarily in the DEFENSE function of the lymphatic system?
Tonsils, Lymph nodes, Spleen, Thymus gland
The thymus gland contains __________________ which has a lot of immune cells including _________________.
lymphatic tissue; lymphocytes
immune cells found primarily in the lymphatic system
Name the three "properties" of lymphocytes
1. formed element of blood
2. will reproduce in great number when ill
3. can travel to other parts of the body via bloodstream when sick
What are the 2 arrangements of lymphatic tissue?
diffuse and lymphatic nodules
Describe diffuse lymphatic tissue and it's placement in the body.
loose, no clear boundary; under mucous membranes, around lymphatic nodules, and within lymph nodes and spleen
___________ = groups of lymphatic nodules in small intestines and appendix
___________ are large groups of lymphatic nodules and diffuse lymphatic tissue located deep to the mucous membrane within the pharynx (throat).
Tonsils allow early detection and defense against harmful material entering via ______ or ______ cavities.
Name the three groups of tonsils
Palatine, Pharyngeal, Lingual
Which group of tonsils is commonly called "tonsils"?
Which group of tonsils are your adenoids?
What are lymph nodes?
Small, round bean-shaped structures scattered throughout the lymphatic system
What is the function of lymph nodes?
Filter lymph and remove bacteria
Lymphocytes reproduce here and are found in large numbers here
There are ~______ lymph nodes in the body
______________ lymph nodes are found in subcutaneous tissue (under dermis of skin).
Lymph is brought to the lymph nodes via the ________ vessels.
______________________ are sites of reproduction of lymphocytes.
Lymph works its way through _________ as pathogens are removed.
Lymph leaves the lymph node via the ____________ vessels.
The __________ is an organ in the left, superior corner to abdominal cavity.
The spleen is connected to the circulatory system via the __________ and the ___________.
splenic artery; splenic vein
What is the job of the spleen?
Filters old and defective RBC's and destroys them
The spleen also has ____________ to detect and destroy pathogens.
The spleen holds a lot of _________ and during exercise the _____________ can shrink by 40% - 50%
blood; blood volume
Events of the spleen:
1. Blood enters the spleen via __________.
2. Enters compartments separated by ________.
3. ________ pulp receives blood first, then _______ pulp.
4. _____________ are wide capillaries with slits to let blood in after filtering.
5. Blood flows out of the spleen via ____________.
splenic artery; trabecule; white; red; venous sinuses; splenic vein
Splenic cords are cell groups producing ______________ which act as a mesh network for filtering.
What is the thymus gland?
Bilobed gland near trachea, esophagus, and heart
The tissue of the thymus gland consists mostly of _______________ cell. (Most lymphatic tissue is _________ but this is not)
Where do T-Cells mature?
_______________ are specialized lymphocytes that, when activated, focus on detecting and destroying very specific pathogens.
The thymus gland shrinks and reduces in function starting in ages ________ until it is reduced to adipose tissue normally by age ________.
What are cytokines?
Chemical messengers from one cell to a neighboring cell
Your immune (defense) systems depends on a lot of _________.
Name the 4 functions of cytokines.
1. Attract other immune cells to site of infection
2. Promote phagocytes
3. Regulate strength and type of immune system responses
4. Stimulate reproduction of immune cells
Name the 5 types of cytokines.
interleukins, lymphokines, chemokines, interferons, inflammatory
1. Interleukins are produced by _________.
2, Lymphokines are produced by _________.
3. Chemokines promote _________ towards a certain chemical.
4. Interferons promote __________ of virus reproduction
5. Inflammatory cytokines promote ____________.
leukocytes; lymphocytes; movement of cells; disruption; inflammation
_________ are substances that bind to receptors on adaptive immune cells and stimulate an adaptive immune system response.
Name the 2 categories of antigens.
Foreign and self-antigens
__________ are lymphocytes that serve as immune system "memory" and release specific antibodies to promote adaptive immune system response.
__________ are lymphocytes that also serve as immune system "memory". They activate other T-Cells including cytotoxic t-cells, which kill other cells, and helper t-cells which secrete cytokines to control immune system response.
What are antibodies?
Proteins which bind to antigens
Antibodies serve as a ___________ for your immune system to know which cells to destroy
Antibodies are produced by ______.
____________ = exposure to an antigen or antibody in typical human functions
___________ = exposure to antigen or annibody via deliberate introduction
__________ = immunity produced by a person's own adaptive immune system
__________ = immunity produced by a differnet person's immune system and transferred to the patient
__________ = normal, everyday exposure to antigens with that individual's own immune system responding
Active natural immunity
__________ = deliberate introduction of a pathogen to get that individual's own immune system to respond
Active artificial immunity
_________ = In normal circumstances where 1 individual's immune system produces antibodies for another individual (only one case of this - pregnancy)
Passive natural immunity
_________ = using a different person's or animal's immune system to create antibodies and then transfer them to the patient
Passive artificial immunity
_________ = serum containing antibodies
serum = _______ without blood cells
_________ = removal of palentine tonsils
_________ = removal of adenoid
_______ = both tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy performed at the same time
Effects of aging:
1. _______ shrinks and is replaced with adipose tissue
2. Less _______ T-Cells
3. Slower ________ immune response
4. More ___________ to pathogens
5. Vaccinations are less effective after age ____.
Thymus gland; mature; adaptive; vulnerable; 60
____________ = inflammation of lymph nodes
___________ = tumor in lymphatic tissue
___________ = major type of lymphatic cancer
_________ = adaptive immune response to an antigen that most people don't react to and has negative symptoms
___________ = antigen causing allegry
_____________ = systemic allergic reaction which causes an unsafe drop in blood pressure
__________________ = adaptive immune system mistake in which your own cells/tissues are targeted for destruction
_____________ = failure of some part of immunity to funciton
__________ (SCID) = B cells and T cells never form
Severe combined immunodeficiency
____________ (AIDS) = caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) = destroys WBCs
Aquired immunodeficiency syndrome
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