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1. Systemic blood vessels transport blood
A) from the left ventricle through the body to the left atrium.
B) from the left ventricle through the body to the right atrium.
C) from the right ventricle through the body to the left atrium.
D) from the right ventricle through the body to the right atrium.
E) from the left ventricle to the lungs.
2. What is the order of the blood vessels that a red blood cell would pass through as the blood leaves the heart, travels to a tissue, and then returns to the heart?
A) arteriole, artery, capillary, vein, venule
B) capillary, arteriole, artery, vein, venule
C) artery, arteriole, capillary, venule, vein
D) vein, capillary, artery, arteriole, venule
E) artery, venule, capillary, arteriole, vein
3. Which of the following enhances the exchange between capillary walls and the interstitial spaces?
A) the thinness of the capillary wall
B) minimal branching in the capillary bed
C) increased blood velocity through the capillaries
D) the high pressure in the interstitial spaces
E) the stratification of the capillary wall
4. The lining of a capillary is called the
C) pericapillary layer.
D) thoroughfare layer.
5. The exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of
6. Continuous capillaries
A) have many thin areas called fenestrae.
B) are freely permeable to large molecules such as hormones.
C) have a wall where the endothelial cells fit very tightly together.
D) are more permeable then fenestrated capillaries but not as permeable as sinusoidal capillaries.
E) are characterized by continuous pores.
7. Which of the following organs would be most likely to contain fenestrated capillaries?
C) bone marrow
8. Capillary walls serve as effective permeability barriers for
A) oxygen and carbon dioxide.
E) small water-soluble molecules.
9. Precapillary sphincters
A) serve as valves in veins.
B) are found in the tunica media.
C) carry blood under high pressure.
D) control the blood flow into capillary beds.
E) are voluntary structures.
10. Which coat of an artery contains endothelium?
A) tunica intima
B) tunica media
C) tunica adventitia
D) tunica elastica
E) tunica intermedia
11. Which of the following functions is associated with vessels that carry blood directly from arterioles to veins without passing through capillaries?
B) nutrient supply to tissues
C) removal of metabolic waste products from tissues
D) oxygen supply to tissues
E) pH regulation
12. Arteries can constrict or dilate as needed because of the smooth muscle found in the
A) tunica intima.
B) tunica media.
C) tunica adventitia.
D) tunica externa.
E) tunica interna.
13. Which of the following statements concerning blood vessel walls is true?
A) The tunica intima is the innermost layer of a blood vessel wall.
B) The tunica media is found in all blood vessels except veins.
C) The tunica adventitia is composed of smooth muscle and endothelium.
D) Capillaries have both a tunica intima and a tunica media.
E) Vessel diameter is control primarily by the tunica intima.
14. The blood vessels that are under the greatest pressure are the
C) elastic arteries.
15. Which of the following best describes arteries?
A) strong, rigid vessels that carry blood under high pressure
B) thin, elastic vessels that transport blood under low pressure
C) elastic vessels that connect arterioles and venules
D) fragile vessels that are prone to rupture.
E) strong, elastic vessels that carry blood under high pressure
16. Distributing arteries
A) contain a lot of elastic tissue.
B) contain a thick tunica media.
C) are strong, rigid vessels.
D) transport blood from arterioles to capillaries.
E) do not contain smooth muscle in their walls.
17. From the heart to body tissues, which of the following sequences of vessels is correct?
A) muscular artery, arteriole, elastic artery, capillary
B) arteriole, muscular artery, elastic artery, capillary
C) elastic artery, muscular artery, arteriole, capillary
D) elastic artery, arteriole, muscular artery, capillary
E) distributing artery, muscular artery, medium artery, capillary
18. Valves similar to semilunar valves are found in some
19. When contrasting arteries and veins, which of the following statements is true?
A) Veins have thicker walls than arteries.
B) Arteries have a thicker tunica media than veins.
C) Veins have a tunica media while arteries do not.
D) Arteries have valves, but veins do not.
E) Arteries have smooth muscle in their walls, but veins do not.
A) carry blood away from the heart.
B) carry blood under very high pressure.
C) may contain valves and are lined with endothelium.
D) are described as strong, rigid vessels that always carry oxygenated blood.
E) have thick, many layered walls.
21. The structure of a capillary wall differs from that of a vein or artery because
A) the capillary wall has only two tunics.
B) capillaries have more smooth muscle.
C) capillary walls have only endothelium and a basement membrane.
D) capillaries can constrict or dilate.
E) capillaries are impermeable to all substances.
22. The vasa vasorum are
A) incompetent valves in the large veins.
B) special capillaries that supply nutrients to the walls of arteries and veins.
C) the blood vessels that supply blood to the vas deferens.
D) blood vessels that directly connect arteries to veins.
E) supply blood to skeletal muscle.
23. The structure that allows blood to flow from arteries to veins without passing through capillaries is called a(n)
A) phlebitic connector.
B) vasa vasorum.
C) varicose vein.
D) arteriovenous anastomoses.
E) thoroughfare channel.
24. Sympathetic nerve fibers that innervate blood vessel walls are found primarily in the
A) tunica intima.
B) tunica media.
C) tunica adventitia.
D) tunica externa.
E) tunica interna.
25. Arteriosclerosis is characterized by
A) a thickening of the tunica adventitia.
B) increased elasticity of the tunica media.
C) decreased resistance to blood flow.
D) an enlargement of the lumen of the vessel.
E) thickening of the tunica intima and loss of elasticity in the tunica media.
26. In the pulmonary circulation, the _____ carry blood to the lungs.
A) carotid sinuses
B) pulmonary arteries
C) coronary arteries
D) superior and inferior vena cavae
27. The systemic circulation
A) carries blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.
B) includes all arteries but the veins are part of the pulmonary circulation pathway.
C) includes the aorta and all of its branches.
D) ends in capillaries of the toes.
E) includes blood flow to the body but not the brain.
28. The blood vessels that branch from the ascending aorta are the
A) coronary arteries.
B) brachiocephalic arteries.
C) common carotid arteries.
D) subclavian arteries.
E) pulmonary arteries.
29. Which of the following arteries branches directly from the aortic arch?
A) brachiocephalic artery
B) coronary artery
C) pulmonary artery
D) right subclavian artery
E) right common carotid artery
30. A thrombus in the first branch (not including coronary arteries) off of the aortic arch might affect the flow of blood to which of the following structures?
A) right arm
B) right side of the brain
C) left side of the brain
D) left arm
E) A and B
31. A thrombus in the second branch (not including coronary arteries) off of the aortic arch would affect the flow of blood to the
A) left side of the head and neck.
B) myocardium of the heart.
C) right side of the head and neck and right upper extremity.
D) left upper extremity.
E) right arm.
32. Which of the following arteries is part of a circulatory pathway to the brain?
A) radial artery
B) cephalic artery
C) internal carotid artery
D) external jugular vein
E) axillary artery
33. Tracing the blood from the heart to the right hand, blood leaves the heart; passes through the ascending aorta, aortic arch, right subclavian artery, axillary and brachial arteries, either the radial or ulnar arteries and palmar arches to arrive at the hand. Which artery is missing in this sequence?
D) right common carotid
E) left subclavian artery
34. Which of the following arteries is not part of the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis)?
A) anterior communicating artery
B) posterior cerebellar artery
C) posterior communicating artery
D) anterior cerebral artery
E) internal carotid artery
35. The three major arteries of the upper limb that form a continuum are the
A) brachial, radial, and ulnar arteries.
B) brachial, axillary, and radial arteries.
C) subclavian, axillary, and radial arteries.
D) subclavian, axillary, and brachial arteries.
E) cephalic, basilic, brachial arteries
36. Which of the following thoracic organs is supplied by a parietal branch of the thoracic aorta?
A) the heart
B) the lungs
C) the esophagus
D) the intercostal muscles
E) the thymus gland.
37. Which of the following blood vessels supplies blood to the diaphragm?
A) axillary artery
B) intercostal artery
C) superior phrenic artery
D) inferior mesenteric artery
E) gastric artery
38. Which of the following arteries sends branches to the stomach and liver?
A) celiac artery
B) superior mesenteric artery
C) inferior mesenteric artery
D) renal artery
E) splenic artery
39. The abdominal aorta divides at L5 to form the two
A) inferior mesenteric arteries.
B) common iliac arteries.
C) superior mesenteric arteries.
D) femoral arteries.
E) renal arteries.
40. The internal iliac arteries supply blood to the
B) urinary bladder and rectum.
C) lower leg.
E) reproductive organs.
41. The posterior tibial artery is a continuation of the
A) popliteal artery.
B) femoral artery.
C) iliac artery.
D) peroneal artery.
E) fibular artery
42. The anterior tibial artery becomes the
A) posterior tibial artery.
B) dorsalis pedis artery.
C) femoral artery.
D) plantar artery.
E) fibular artery.
43. One of the best ways to determine the adequacy of peripheral circulation is to check the pedal pulses. To check the pedal pulse you would check the pulse in the
44. An obstruction in the inferior vena cava would hamper the return of blood from the
A) head and neck.
B) upper extremities.
D) abdomen, pelvis, and lower limbs.
45. Veins that return blood directly to the heart include the
A) brachiocephalic vein.
B) superior vena cava.
C) portal vein.
D) azygos vein.
E) pulmonary arteries.
46. The venous sinuses in the cranial vault drain blood into the
A) cephalic vein.
B) internal jugular vein.
C) internal carotid vein.
D) brachiocephalic vein.
E) carotid artery.
47. The internal jugular veins join the subclavian veins to form the
A) superior vena cavae.
B) axillary veins.
C) brachiocephalic veins.
D) azygos veins.
E) external jugular veins.
48. A vein responsible for draining blood from the upper limb is the
A) azygos vein.
B) portal vein.
C) cephalic vein.
D) peroneal vein.
E) common iliac vein
49. Which of the following veins is a superficial vein?
A) brachial vein
B) basilic vein
C) radial vein
D) subclavian vein
E) ulnar vein
50. What vessel is prominent in many people and often used as the site for drawing blood?
A) basilic vein
B) brachial artery
C) cephalic vein
D) brachial vein
E) median cubital vein
51. The longest vein in the body is the
A) superior vena cava.
B) inferior vena cava.
C) hepatic portal vein.
D) great saphenous vein.
E) femoral vein.
52. Blood from the posterior abdominal wall drains into the
A) hepatic portal vein.
B) inferior vena cava.
C) ascending lumbar vein.
D) mesenteric vein.
E) hepatic vein.
53. The hepatic portal vein is formed by the union of the splenic vein and the
A) superior mesenteric vein.
B) inferior mesenteric vein.
C) hepatic vein.
D) renal vein.
E) gastric vein.
54. Which of the following are components of the hepatic portal system?
A) azygos vein
B) inferior vena cava
C) splenic vein
D) superior mesenteric vein
E) C and D
55. The hepatic portal system
A) begins and ends with capillary beds.
B) transports nutrients from the GI tract to the liver.
C) allows the liver to detoxify substances entering the body through the GI tract.
D) has no pumping mechanism between the capillary beds.
E) all of the above.
56. The _____ begins with capillaries in the abdominal viscera and ends with capillaries in the liver.
A) superior mesenteric system
B) celiac system
C) hepatic portal system
D) hepatic vein
E) splenic system
57. Which of the following is correct?
A) external iliac vein, internal iliac vein, common iliac vein
B) liver sinusoid, central vein, hepatic vein
C) superior vena cava, azygos vein, posterior intercostal vein
D) fibular vein, femoral vein, popliteal vein
E) hepatic vein, hepatic portal system, inferior vena cava
58. As the popliteal vein ascends the leg, it becomes the
A) peroneal vein.
B) saphenous vein.
C) common iliac vein.
D) femoral vein.
E) deep femoral vein.
59. The azygos vein drains blood from the _____ into the superior vena cava.
B) upper arm
E) abdominal wall
60. The velocity of blood flow inside a blood vessel
A) is equal to the blood pressure.
B) is faster in the center of the blood vessel.
C) is most rapid at a bend or turn in the vessel.
D) increases along the walls of the blood vessel.
E) is more rapid along the sides of the vessel.
61. Which of the following statements about laminar blood flow is true?
A) The innermost layer of blood moves at the lowest velocity.
B) Laminar blood flow occurs when blood flows past an area of constriction.
C) The outermost layer of blood experiences the greatest resistance to flow.
D) In laminar blood flow, the rapid rate of blood flow exceeds critical velocity.
E) It makes lots of different noises.
62. Blood pressure is the
A) product of the stroke volume times heart rate.
B) number of layers of blood in laminar flow models.
C) measure of force blood exerts against blood vessel walls.
D) viscosity of the blood and resistance to blood flow.
E) measure of the volume of the blood.
63. The auscultatory method of measuring blood pressure
A) relies on the insertion of a cannula into the vessel in which pressure is being measured.
B) monitors the oscillations in the blood vessel during changes in pressure.
C) involves an electronic transducer attached to a mercury manometer.
D) relies on hearing Korotkoff's sounds through a stethoscope.
E) relies on hearing the sounds made by laminar flow of the blood.
64. A blood pressure reading of 120/80 would
A) indicate a diastolic pressure of 120 mm Hg.
B) have Korotkoff sounds at pressures above 120 mm Hg.
C) be considered normal for a young adult male.
D) indicate a systolic pressure of 80 mm Hg.
E) would be considered hypertensive.
65. When measuring blood pressure with a sphygmomanometer, which of the following best describes when blood flow in the brachial artery is turbulent?
A) while the left ventricle is contracting
B) when pressure in the blood pressure cuff is greater than systolic but less than the diastolic pressure
C) when pressure in the blood pressure is greater than the diastolic pressure
D) when pressure in the blood pressure cuff is less than the diastolic pressure
E) when pressure in the brachial artery is greater than in the blood pressure cuff and greater than the diastolic pressure
66. Which of the following would increase resistance to blood flow?
A) a decrease in the length of the vessel
B) a decrease in the number of red blood cells
C) a decrease in blood viscosity
D) a decrease in the radius of the vessel
E) a decreased hematocrit.
67. Resistance in the cardiovascular system
A) tends to increase if blood viscosity increases.
B) tends to decrease as the diameter of blood vessels decreases.
C) dramatically increases blood flow through the circulatory system.
D) is directly related to flow ( R Flow).
E) does not occur. If it did, blood would not circulate in the blood vessels.
68. According to Poiseuille's law,
A) blood flow is not related to resistance.
B) pH of the blood influences flow.
C) viscosity of the blood is not related to flow.
D) if resistance increases, flow increases.
E) if resistance increases, flow decreases.
69. As viscosity of the blood increases,
A) the pressure required to force it to flow increases.
B) the pressure required to force it to flow decreases.
C) the fluid becomes thinner.
D) the hematocrit decreases.
E) the flow does not change.
70. When the blood pressure of a vessel drops below the critical closing pressure for that vessel,
A) there is hypertension.
B) there is an increase in blood flow.
C) there is an increase in peripheral resistance.
D) the vessel collapses.
E) the vessel expands.
71. According to the Laplace's Law, as the diameter of a blood vessel increases, the force applied to the wall of that vessel
C) increases, then decreases.
D) remains the same.
E) none of the above.
72. The greater the compliance the
A) greater the resistance generated in the vessel.
B) more easily the vessel wall stretches.
C) longer the blood vessel will measure.
D) higher the blood pressure will be.
E) less the elasticity of the vessel.
73. Which of the following acts as a storage area for blood?
A) the aorta
B) the veins
E) the arteries
74. In the aorta,
A) the blood pressure and blood velocity are both high.
B) the velocity of blood flow is high, but blood pressure is low.
C) the resistance to blood flow is high, but velocity of blood flow is low.
D) the resistance to blood flow and the blood pressure are both low.
E) velocity is diminished because the total cross-sectional area is small.
75. Resistance to blood flow is greatest in
76. If someone has a blood pressure reading of 110/70 mm Hg, their pulse pressure would be
A) 110 mm Hg.
B) 70 mm Hg.
C) 40 mm Hg.
D) 180 mm Hg.
E) 90 mm Hg.
77. Arteriosclerosis results in decreased compliance, which in turn causes the pulse pressure to
C) increase, then decrease.
D) decrease, then increase.
E) remain the same.
78. Art is 75. He has advanced arteriosclerosis. He is suffering from a number of manifestations, which are consistent with his arteriosclerosis. Over the past several years he has developed hypertension and he is beginning to show signs of renal failure. Which of the following are consistent with his condition?
A) increased resistance to blood flow
B) increased renin secretion from the kidneys
C) increased aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex
D) increased angiotensinogen formation
E) all of the above
79. In which of the following would you detect a weak pulse?
B) hemorrhagic shock
C) fluid excess
D) increased stroke volume
E) a healthy young person
80. When blood pressure is greater than the blood colloid osmotic pressure, there is
A) a net movement of fluid into the capillary.
B) a net movement of fluid out of the capillary.
C) less lymph formed.
D) a decrease in the volume of the interstitial fluid.
E) a decreased likelihood of edema.
81. A force that causes the movement of fluid out of the capillary is
A) blood pressure.
B) positive interstitial pressure.
C) blood colloid osmotic pressure.
D) critical closing pressure.
E) lymph pressure.
82. A force that attracts fluid into the capillary from the tissue spaces is
A) blood pressure.
B) negative interstitial pressure.
C) blood colloid osmotic pressure.
D) venous pressure.
E) active transport.
83. Edema can occur when there is
A) an increase in the amount of plasma proteins.
B) a decrease in capillary permeability to proteins.
C) a decrease in blood pressure.
D) a blockage of the lymphatics.
E) an increase in blood colloid osmotic pressure.
84. Which of the following is LESS likely to result in edema?
A) increase in capillary permeability
B) reduced plasma colloid osmotic pressure
C) blockage of veins
D) increased mean arterial pressure
E) A and B
85. In which of the following clinical situations would you expect edema?
A) shock (which is accompanied by low blood pressure)
B) burns (which result in increased capillary permeability to plasma proteins)
C) dehydration (which results in low blood pressure)
D) vomiting (which leads to a decreased plasma volume)
E) diarrhea (which leads to a decreased blood volume)
86. In capillary exchange, which of the following statements is true?
A) Most fluid that leaves the arterial end of a capillary reenters the venous end of a capillary.
B) Interstitial fluid normally has a higher osmotic pressure than plasma.
C) Constriction of the precapillary sphincter will increase blood pressure in the capillary.
D) Interstitial protein concentration is normally higher than plasma protein concentration.
E) Most fluid that leaves the arterial end of a capillary enters the lymphatic system.
87. Which of the following factors assists in the return of venous blood to the heart?
1. arterial dilation
2. valves in the veins
3. sympathetic stimulation
4. compression of veins by muscular movements
A) 1 and 2
B) 1, 2, 3
C) 1, 2, 3, 4
D) 2, 3, 4
E) 1, 3, 4
88. Increased venous tone will
A) relax the veins.
B) help return blood to the heart.
C) allow blood to pool in the veins.
D) stabilize blood velocity in the veins.
E) dilate the veins.
89. Which of the following happen when a person stands in one place for a long period of time?
A) Gravity causes an increased accumulation of blood in the veins in the feet and legs.
B) Blood pressure rises in the venules of the feet.
C) Without muscular movement the pressure at the venous end of the capillaries increases.
D) Edema may occur in the lower extremities.
E) All of the above.
90. Which of the following would lead to relaxation of the precapillary sphincter?
A) decreased tissue metabolism
B) decreased oxygen levels in tissue cells served by the capillary
C) decreased carbon dioxide concentration in the capillary bed
D) decreased lactic acid production by cells in the capillary bed
E) decreased nitric acid levels
91. Vasomotor tone can be increased by
A) taking a nap.
B) emotional excitement.
C) soaking in a warm bathtub.
D) an increase in body temperature.
E) relaxing with a cup of tea.
92. Which of the following statements regarding regulation of local blood flow is true?
A) Increased metabolic rate in a tissue increases capillary blood flow into the tissue.
B) Blood flow through capillaries is continuous.
C) Contraction of precapillary sphincters will increase blood flow to a capillary bed.
D) Increased levels of carbon dioxide increase the contraction of precapillary sphincters.
E) Tissue need for oxygen and amino acids will cause precapillary sphincters to contract.
93. Which of the following events would cause a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure?
A) an increase in ADH production
B) release of atrial natriuretic factor
C) constriction of blood vessels in the skin
D) activation of the renin-angiotensin mechanism
E) an increase in aldosterone production
94. When blood pressure increases, a number of events occur that return blood pressure to normal. Which of the following is one of the events that occurs after an increase in blood pressure?
A) Baroreceptors are stimulated.
B) Action potential frequency to the cardioregulatory center of brain decreases.
C) Sympathetic stimulation of the heart increases.
D) Heart rate increases.
E) An increase in number of action potentials in the cardiac nerve.
A) increases the heart rate but decreases the stroke volume.
B) causes vasodilation of coronary blood vessels.
C) causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels in skeletal muscle.
D) decreases red blood cell count.
E) decreases the force of contraction.
96. When there is a drop in blood pressure, the body reacts immediately by way of the
A) baroreceptor mechanism.
B) chemoreceptor mechanism.
C) CNS ischemic mechanism.
D) stress-relaxation mechanism.
E) adrenal medullary mechanism.
97. Baron von Quacko, famous tag-team wrestler, has a famous "sleeper hold" that he uses on his opponents. Using only a single digit on each hand, he presses on his opponent's neck until his opponent passes out. What are the structures on which he is pressing and what is the effect?
A) subclavian arteries; blood flow to brain is stopped
B) carotid chemoreceptors; blood pressure increases
C) baroreceptors in carotid sinus; peripheral vasodilation and decreased heart rate
D) vertebral arteries; blood flow to brain is increased
E) jugular vein; blood flow back to heart is decreased
98. Increased pressure in the aortic arch will activate the aortic arch reflex and cause
A) a decrease in the frequency of action potentials from the aortic baroreceptors.
B) increased parasympathetic stimulation of the heart.
C) vasoconstriction of peripheral vessels increasing the blood pressure.
D) increased ADH secretion.
E) increased sympathetic stimulation of the heart.
99. When a person rises quickly from a lying position, there is
A) an increase in the frequency of action potentials produced by the baroreceptors.
B) an increase in vasomotor sympathetic stimulation to the blood vessels causing vasoconstriction..
C) reflexive slowing of the heart.
D) an increase of parasympathetic stimulation of the heart.
E) a decrease in heart rate and stroke volume.
A) are located in the aortic and carotid bodies.
B) are sensitive to small changes in oxygen levels in the blood.
C) monitor blood pressure.
D) are not sensitive to carbon dioxide or hydrogen ion levels.
E) are not sensitive to changes in pH of the blood.
101. The chemoreceptor reflexes help maintain homeostasis
A) under normal conditions.
B) when carbon dioxide levels increase.
C) when stimulated by changes in blood osmotic pressure.
D) when epinephrine levels increase.
E) when hydrogen ion concentrations decrease.
102. The central nervous system ischemic response
A) is triggered by an increase in blood flow to the vasomotor center.
B) plays an important role in controlling blood pressure under emergency conditions.
C) is stimulated by a rise in oxygen.
D) is inhibited by a rise in the level of hydrogen ions.
E) plays an important role in regulating blood pressure under normal conditions.
103. Which of the following hormones does not influence blood pressure?
C) atrial natriuretic hormone
E) growth hormone
104. Angiotensin II
A) causes vasoconstriction.
B) stimulates the adrenal cortex to release ADH.
C) is released in response to high blood pressure.
D) is responsible for increasing urine output.
E) stimulates peripheral vasodilation.
105. Which of the following would occur as a result of increased renin release by the kidneys?
A) an increase in vasodilator secretion
B) an increase in urine output
C) an increase in blood volume
D) a decrease in aldosterone
E) a decrease in blood pressure.
106. Which of the following chemical substances, when released into the blood, would cause blood pressure to decrease?
A) angiotensin II (active angiotensin)
E) atrial natriuretic hormone
107. Hormones from the adrenal medulla
A) are released in response to parasympathetic stimulation.
B) cause vasodilation in blood vessels of the skin.
C) decrease the heart rate.
D) cause an increase in stroke volume.
E) are released in response to vagal stimulation.
108. In response to circulatory shock,
A) the body decreases ADH secretion.
B) the renin-angiotensin mechanism is activated.
C) atrial natriuretic factor is released.
D) the vasomotor center is inhibited.
E) the baroreceptors and chemoreceptors are inactivated.
109. If a person develops high blood pressure, one of the compensatory mechanisms that comes into play is the fluid shift mechanism. This mechanism causes
A) water to shift from inside cells into the extracellular fluid.
B) water to shift from the capillaries into the interstitial spaces.
C) water to shift from the interstitial space into the capillaries.
D) increased filtration in the kidney thereby increasing urine output.
E) water to stay inside the capillaries.
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