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137 terms

AP2

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Thyrotropin (TRH)
Causes pituitary to release Thyrortopin
Thyroid-Stimulating hormone (TSH)
Hypothalamus
Thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TRH)
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
Causes pituitary to release coticotropin
Adrenocortictropic hormone (ACTH)
Hypothalamus
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
Causes pituitary to release gonodotropic hormones: follitropin (follicle stimulating FSH), lutropin (luteinizing hormone LH)
Hypothalamus
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRF)
Causes pituitary to release Prolactin (PRL)
or mammotropin
Hypothalamus
Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRF)
Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH)
Inhibits the pituitary from releasing Prolaction (PRL) or mammotropin
Hypothalamus
Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH)
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH)
Causes pituitary to release growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin
Hypothalamus
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH)
Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GH-IH)
Inhibits the pituitary from releasing growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin
Hypothalamus
Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GH-IH)
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone -inhibiting hormone (MSH-IH)
Inhibits the pituitary from releasing Melanocyte-stimulating ormone (MSH) or melanotropin
Hypothalamus
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone -inhibiting hormone (MSH-IH)
Thyroid-stimulation hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin
Causes thyroid to release thyroid hormones
Anterior pituitary
Thyroid-stimulation hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or coticotropin
Causes adrenal gland to secrete glucocorticoids
Anterior pituitary
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or coticotropin
Gonadotropic hormones
1. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or follitropin
2. Luteninizing ormone (LH) or lutropin
Regulate the activities of male and female gonads
1.
In females: stimulate follicle development and estrogen secretion; In males: stimulates sperm production
2.
In females: stimulates ovulation, formation of corpus luteum, and progestin production - prepare the body for possible pregnancy; In males: stimulates production of androgens (testosterone)
Anterior pituitary
Gonadotropic hormones
1. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or follitropin
2. Luteninizing ormone (LH) or lutropin
Prolactin (PRL) or mammotropin
Stimulates the development of the mammary glands, and milk production
Anterior pituitary
Prolactin (PRL) or mammotropin
Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin
Stimulates cell growth, replicatiton and protein syntheses. Stimulates lipid mobilization and catabolism
Anterior pituitary
Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin
Melanocyte-stimulation hormone (MSH) or melanotropin
Stimulates the melanocytes to produce melanin
Anterior pituitary
Melanocyte-stimulation hormone (MSH) or melanotropin
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin or arginine
Reduce water excretion, vasoconstricter (constrict peripheral blood vessesls) elevates blood volume and pressure
Anterior pituitary
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin or arginine
Oxyotocin (OT)
In women: premotes the ejection of milk, labor contractions and delivery
In males: contractions of ductus deferens and prostate
Anterior pituitary
Oxyotocin (OT)
Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)
Speed up the Kreb's cycle; increase: protein synthesis, oxygen consumption, growth; stimylates development of the nervous system
Thyroid
Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)
Calcitonin (CT)
Decreases Ca2+ concentrations in the body
Thyroid
Calcitonin (CT)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) or parathormone
Increases the Ca3+ concentrations in the body
Thyroid
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) or parathormone
Thymosin
Stimulates development and maturation of immune response
Thymus
Thymosin
Mineralcorticoids (MC)
*Aldosterone
Regulates electrolyte composition of bodily fluids
*stimylates conservation of sodium ions and elimination of potassium ions
Adrenal Cortex
Mineralcorticoids (MC)
*Aldosterone
Glucocorticoids (GC): cortisol (hydrocortisone), corticosterone, cortisone
Accelerate glucose synthesis and glycogen formation; glucose-sparing effect; anti-inflammatory effect; releasee amino acids from skeletal muscles
Adrenal Cortex
Glucocorticoids (GC): cortisol (hydrocortisone), corticosterone, cortisone
Androgen (steroid sex hormones)
Uncertain significance
Adrenal Cortex
Androgen (steroid sex hormones)
Epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE)
Increase: blood glucose, blood glycerol, gatty acids, heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate
Adrenal Medulla
Epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE)
Calcitriol
Stimulat calcium (Ca2+) and phosphate (PO43-) ion absorption in digestive tract
Kidney
Calcirtiol
Erythropoietin (EPO)
Stimulates the production of red blood cells
Kidney
Erythropoietin (EPO)
Renin
Converts angiotensinogen -> angiotensin l
Kidney
Renin
Angiotensinogen
Involced in renin-angiotensin system
Liver
Angiotensinogen
Somatomedins or insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)
Converts angiotensin to angiotensin 2
Liver
Somatomedins or insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
Preomotes the loss of Na+ and water; inhibits the secretion of renin, antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and Aldosterone; suppresses thirst; blocks actions of angiotensin ll or norepinephrine on arterioles
Heart
Atrial natriuretic peptied (ANP)
Glucagon
Increases blood glucose by stimulating: glycogen breakdown, trglyceride breakdown, glucose production
Pancreas
Glucagon
Insulin
Lowers blood glucose by accelerating: glucose uptake, glucose utilization and enhanced ATP productio; stimulation: glycogen formation, amino acid absorption and protein synthesis, triglyceride formation
Pancreas
Inculin
Somatosin
Suppresses glucagon and insulin release; slows food absorption rates and enzyme production
Pancreas
Somatosin
Pancreatic polypeptide (PP)
Inhibits gallbladder contractions, regulate some pancreatic enzyme production
Pancreas
Pancreatic polypeptide (PP)
Androgen (steroid sex hormones)
*testosterone
*Production of functional sperm; maintain secretory glands of male reproductive tract; stimulates: growth, protein synthesis and muscle growth; determine male secondary sexual characteristics; produce aggressive behavioral responses
Testes
Androgen (steroid sex hormones)
*testosterone
Inhibin
Inhibits the secretion of follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) or follitropin
Testes
Inhibin
Estrogen
*Estradiol
Steroid hormone that support the maturation of oocytes, female secondary sexual characteristics, associated behaviors; and stimulate the growth of uterine lining
Ovaries
Estrogen
*Estradiol
Inhibin
Inhibits the secretion of follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) or follitropin
Ovaries
Inhibin
Progestins
*Progesterone
*Prepare the uterus for the embryo, accerlate the movcement of the oocyte or embryo, enlargement of the mammary glands
Ovaries
Progestins
*Progesterone
Relaxin
Loosen the pubic symphysis, permit expansion of the vervix and vagina during delivery, stimulates development of the mammary glands
Ovaries
relaxin
Melatonin
Slows the maturation of sperm, ooxytes, and reproductive organs by reducing the GnRH secretion rate; very effective
Antioxidant- pretect the body from free raficals; establish daily circadian rhythms
Pineal
Melatonin
Angiotesin l
Incolced in renin-angiotensin system
Angiotensin ll
Stimulates: adrenal production of aldosterone, pituitary to secrete antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Acromegaly
Growth hormone (GH); excessive growth
Pituitary growth failure
Growth hormone (GH); retarted growth, abnormal fat distribution, low blood glucose hours after a meal
Diabetes mellitus
Insulin; high blood glucose, impaired glucose utilization, dependence on lipids for energy; glycosuria
Diabetes insipidus
Antifiuretic hormone (ADH) or arginine casopressin (AVP); Polyuria, dehydration, thirst
Hypothyroidism (myxedema, cretinism)
Thyroxine (T4) Triiodothyronine (T3); low metabolic rate; low body temoerature; impaired physical and mental development
Hyperthyroidism
Thyroxine (T4) Triiodothyronine (T3); High metabolic rate and body temperature
hypoparathyroidism
Parathyroid hormone (PTH); Muscular weakness, neurological problems, formation of dense bones, tetany due to low blood Ca2+ concentrations
Hyperparathyroidism
Parathyroid hormone (PTH); Neurological, mental, muscular problems due to hight blood Ca2+ concentrations; weak and brittle bones
Aldosteronism
Mineralocorticoids (MCs); Increased body weight due to Na+ and water retention; low blood K+ concentration
Adison's Disease
Glucocorticoids (GCs); Inability to tolerate stress, mobilize energy reservs, or maintain normal blood glucose concentrations
Cushing's Disease
Glucocorticoids (GCs); Excessive breakdown of tissue proteins and lipid reserves; impaired glucose metabolism
Adrenogenital syndrome
Estrogens (females); Overproduction of androgens by zona reticularis of suprarenal cortex leads to masculinization
Adrenogenital syndrome (gynecomastia)
Androgens (male); Abnormal production of estrogen, sometimes die to suprarenal or interstitial cell tumors; leads to breast enlargment
Olfactory organs
Provide sense of smell; located in the nasal cavity on either side of nasal septum; made up of two layers, olfactory epithelium (receptors, supporting cells, basal (stem) cells, lamina propria (areolar tissue, blood vessels, nerves, olfactory glands
Olfactory receptors
Highly modified neurons; involves detecting dissolved chemicals as the interact with odorant-binding proteins
Olfactory pathways
Axons leaving olfactory epithelium; collect into 20 or more bundles; penetrate cribriform plate of ethmoid; reach olfactory bulbs of cerebrum where first synapse occurs.
Axons leaving olfactory bulb: travel along olfactory tract to reach olfactory cortex, hypothalamus, and portions of limbic system; arriving information reaches information centers without first synapsing in the thalamus
Olfactory discrimination
Can distinguish thousands of chemical stimuli; CNS interperts smells by the pattern of recveptor activity
Receptor population- considerable turnober; number of olfactory reveptors declines with age
Gustatory receptors (taste receptors)
Are distributed on tongue and portions of pharynx and larynx; clustered into taste buds
Taste buds-associated with epithelial projections (lingual papillae) on superior surface of tongue
Lingual papillae
Three types: Filiform-provides friction; do not contain taste buds; fungiform-contain five taste buds each; Circumvallate-contains 100 taste buds each
Taste buds
Contain- basal cells, gustatory cells-extend taste hairs through taste pore, survive only 10 days before replacement, monitored by crainal nerves that synapse within solitary nucleus of medulla oblongata, then on to thalamus and primary sensory cortex
Four primary taste sensations
Sweet, salty, sour, bitter
Additional human taste sensations
Umami-characteristic of beef/chicken broths and parmesan cheese, receptors sensitibve to amino acids, small peptides, and nucleotides; water- detected by water receptors in the pharynx
Gustatory discrimination
Dissolved chemicals contact taste hairs, bind to receptor proteins of gustatory cell, salt and sour reveptors, chemically gated ion channels, stimulation produces depolarization of cell, sweet, bitter, and umami stimuli, g-proteins, gustducins
Taste sensitivity
Exhibits significant individual differences, some conditions are inherited-for example phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) 70% of caucasians taste in but 30% don not, number of taste buds begins to decline rapidly by age 50
Accessroy structure of the eye
Provide protection, lubercation, and support; include the palpebrae (eyelids), superficial epithelium of eye, lacrimal apparatus
Palpebrae
continuation of skin, blinking keeps surface of eye lubricated, free of dust and debris
Palpebral fissure
Gap that seperates free margins of upper and lower eyelids
Medial and lateral canthus
Where two eyelids are connected
Eyelashes
Robust hairs that prevent foreign matter from reaching surface of eye
Tarsal glands
Secrete lipid-rich product that helps keep eyelids from sticking together
Superficial epithelium of eye
Lacrimal caruncle-mass of soft tissue, contains glands producing thick secretions, contributes to gritty deposits that appear after a good nights sleep
conjunctiva- epithelium covering inner surface of eyelid (palpbral conjunctiva) and outter surface of eye (ocular conjunctiva)
Lacrimal apparatus
Produces, distributes and removes tears
Fornix
Pocket where palpebral conjunctiva joins ocular conjunctiva
Lacrimal gland (tear gland)
Secretions contain lysozyme, and antibacterial enzyme
Tears
Collect in the lacrimal lake, pass through lacrimal puncta, lacrimal canaliculi, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct, to reach inferior meatus of nose
Three layers of the eye
Outer fibrous layer, intermediate cascular layter, deep inner layer
Eye ball
Hollow, divided into two cavities- large posterior and smaller anterior cavity
Fibrous layer
Sclera (white of the eye), cornea, corneal limbus (border between cornea and sclera)
Vascular layer (Ucvea)
Provides route for blood vessels and lymphatics that supply tissues of eye, regulates amount of light entering eye, secretes and reabsorbs aqueous humor that circulates within chambers of eye, controls shape of lens which is essential to focusing,
Irus
Contains papillary muscles, change diameter of pupil
Ciliary body
Extends posteriorly to lebel of ora serrata, serrated anteroir edge of thick, inner portion of neural tunic, contains cilary processes, and cilary muscle that attaches to suspensory ligaments of lens
Choroid
Vascular layer that seperates fibrous and inner layers posterior to ora serrata, delivers oxygen and nutrients to retina
Inner layer
Neural part (retina)- contains cisual revceptors and associated neurons, roda and cones are types of photoreceptors
Outter layer
Pigmented part
Rods
Do not discriminate light colors, highly sensitive to light
Cones
Provide color vision, densely clustered in fovea, at center of macula
Bipolar cells
Neurons of rods and cones synapse with ganglion cells
Horizontal cells
Extend across outer portion of retina
Amacrine cells
Comparable to horizontal cell layer, where bipolar cells synapse with ganglion cells
Optic disc
Circular region just medial to fovea, origin of optic nerve (blind spot)
Chambers of the eye
Cilary body and lens divide eye into: large posterior cavity (vitreous chamber) between iris, ,ciliary body and lens; smaller anterior cabity, anterior chamber extends from cornea to iris
Aqueous humor
Fluid circulates within eye, diffuses through walls of anterior chamber into scleral venous sinus (canal of schlemm), re-enters circulation
Intraocular pressure
Fluid pressure in aqueous humor, helps retain eye shape