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Alcohol Typology Theories
Typological theorizing is thus well known for its
advantages in theorizing about the types of alcohol levels, which state the complex phenomena without oversimplifying, clarifying similarities and
differences among cases to facilitate comparison, providing a comprehensive inventory of all possible
kinds of cases, incorporating interactions effects, and drawing attention to "empty cells" or kinds of
cases that have not occurred and perhaps cannot do so.
Doctor's. C. Robert Cloninger, Sören Sigvardsson, and Michael Bohman: Type l & Type ll Alcoholism
Doctors who studied & wrote the article on "Inheritance of Alcohol Abuse" & "The Cross-Fostering Analysis of Adopted Men which states; The inheritance of alcoholism was studied in 862 Swedish men adopted by nonrelatives at an early age. Both the congenital and postnatal backgrounds of the adoptees modify their risk for alcohol abuse. We distinguish two forms of alcoholism that have distinct genetic and environmental causes and differ in their association with criminality, severity of alcohol abuse, and the frequency of expression in biological mothers. Postnatal milieu determines the frequency and severity of expression of the common type of susceptibility in both men and women. In contrast, the less common type is highly heritable in men but is seldom expressed in mothers of affected men.
Dr. John P Allen: Subtypes of Alcoholics Based on Psychometric Measures
One approach to sub-typing alcoholics is using psychometric tests to assess the patients' psychological characteristics, notes Dr. John P. Allen. The resulting typologies may potentially have meaningful implications for alcoholism treatment. Several tests have been used to identify alcoholic subtypes. These tests categorize alcoholics according to their personalities, their motivation for treatment, and the existence of co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Dr. Allen reviews typology schemes based on these characteristics, as well as a hybrid model that classifies alcoholics along various sets of criteria. Researchers have not yet evaluated sufficiently, however, how effective these typologies will be in selecting and planning the appropriate treatment strategy for each patient
Dr. Samuel A. Ball, University of Connecticut
Type A and Type B Alcoholism: Applicability Across Sub-populations and Treatment Settings: Alcoholism is a complex disorder with many different causes and outcomes. Some studies suggest that all alcoholic subjects can be assigned to one of two types that differ consistently in several factors related to the causes, symptoms, and adverse consequences of alcohol use. Dr. Samuel A. Ball explores a model developed by researchers at the University of Connecticut in which socalled type B alcoholism appears to represent a more severe form of the disorder than does type A alcoholism. This type A-type B alcoholism typology, which is similar to Cloninger's type I-type II, may help explain the different causes, courses, prognoses, and outcomes for the disorder
Doctors. Robert A. Zucker, Deborah A. Ellis, C. Raymond Bingham, and Hiram E. Fitzgerald.
The Development of Alcoholic Subtypes: Risk Variation Among Alcoholic Families During the Early Childhood Years: Alcoholism frequently is associated with other psychiatric disorders, most commonly with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). The presence of ASPD in an alcoholic parent also influences the child's risk for developing alcoholism, according to Drs. Robert A. Zucker, Deborah A. Ellis, C. Raymond Bingham, and Hiram E. Fitzgerald. Such high-risk families frequently have a greater number of alcoholic relatives or a higher prevalence of other psychiatric disorders. Because of this association, researchers are using the presence or absence of ASPD to distinguish different subtypes of alcoholics
Doctors. Francis K. Del Boca and Michie N. Hesselbrock: Gender and Alcoholic Subtypes
Gender may be used as a distinction in alcoholism subtyping schemes. Some typologies, such as Cloninger's type I-type II scheme, place female alcoholics in a single category (i.e., type I). Other typologies, including Babor and colleagues' type A-type B scheme, are based on findings that women, like men, may differ in their risk for and severity of alcoholism. Drs. Francis K. Del Boca and Michie N. Hesselbrock analyzed a population of female and male alcoholics and determined that although those with severe or mild alcoholism differ little from each other in their personal profiles, men and women with a moderately severe form of the disease tend to be divided by sex according to their co-occurring psychopathologies (i.e., depression, anxiety, or antisocial personality). This finding has implications for determining the etiologies and treatment of men's and women's alcoholism
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