Chapter 3: The Roots of American Democracy
Terms in this set (32)
New Jersey Plan
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of the state's population
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for representation of each state in Congress in proportion to that state's share of the U.S. population.
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
the decision at the Constitutional convention to count slaves as 3/5 of a person for the purpose of deciding the population and determining how many seats each state would have in Congress
the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
English Bill of Rights
To make clear the powers of England's monarchy in 1689, the English Parliament drafted a list of things that they could not do like no taxing without permission from Parliament.
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Written by Hamilton, Jay, & Madison to support ratification of the U.S. Constitution
He helped draft the Great Compromise that determined how states would be represented in Congress
favored the creation of a strong federal government that shared power with the states
preferred the loose association of states established under the Articles of confederation
a political system, inspired by the Roman reppublic, in which power is exercised by elected leaders who work in the interests of the people
Rule of Law
The principles that government is based on clear and fairly enforced laws and that no one is above the law.
system of politics where powers exercised by the government re restricted and usually written in a constitution
the rights that can be claimed by individuals by virtue of being human. These rights are also referred to as human rights or natural rights.
Separation of Powers
the idea that the powers of government should be split between two or more independent branches to prevent one group or person from gaining full control
the principle that people are the ultimate source of the authority and legitimacy of a government
belief that governments should operate according to an agreed set of principles, which are usually stated in a written constitution
the idea that decisions approved by more than half of the people in a society or group will be accepted and observed by all members
King of England who raised taxes and punished his enemies without a trial. He is best known for being forced to sign the Magna Carta.
(1588-1679): English enlightenment thinker who first introduces the idea of a social contract between people and their rulers. Hobbes believed people were too selfish to govern themselves and needed the guidance of a strong ruler.
(1632-1704)- Agreed with the idea of a social contract, but believed that people ha the right to overthrow a ruler who did not protect their rights.
(1689-1755): French enlightenment thinker who proposed a three-branch system of government; executive, judicial, and legislative. This separation of powers was valued by Americans and would inspire the three-branch system of government stated in the Constitution.
refers to the British allowing American colonies to run their day-to-day businesses of government. However, in the 1760s, the policy was reversed when Britain started enforcing taxes and restrictions on the colonies.
groups of armed citizens. During the American Revolution, battled experienced British soldiers in order to protect the ideals of America.
commanding officer of the Continental Army during the American Revolution. In 1789, he was elected by the Electoral College to be the first U.S. president.
Bicameral: two-house legislature; new plan for government put forth under the Virginia Plan
Unicameral: one-house legislature where all states had equal representation. Proposed in the New Jersey Plan.
profound political thinker who is rightly called the Father of the Constitution. Would become the 4th U.S. president
made up of electors from each state to cast votes for president and vice-president