62 terms

Chapter 4-6 Study Set

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Participation Paradox
The fact that citizens vote even through a single rarely decides an election
Voter Turnout
The proportion of eligible Americans who actually vote
Voting age Population
the total number of persons in the United States who are 18 years of age or older
26th Amendment
Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18
What restrictions kept people from voting in the past
-Poll Tax
-Women not being able to vote
-not being white
-annual registration
-jury duty
-Early registration
-White primaries
-long resident requirement
-property ownership
Poll Tax
- Was a tax paid at polling places.
- Kept minorities and poor from voting
Annual Registration
- Required voters to register every year.
- Annual Registration was voided in 1971.
Jury duty
- Texas law provided that the names of prospective jurors must be drawn from the voting rolls.
- Now people are picked if they are 18 years or older, mentally competent, and have an ID from the state of Texas
Long Resident Requirements
- The Texas residence requirement of one year in the state and six months.
- Abolished by the supreme court in 1972
Direct Primary
A method of selecting part nominees in which party members participate directly in the selection of a candidate to represent them in the general election.
Runoff Primary
A second primary election that pits the two top vote-getters from the first primary, where the winner in that primary did not receive a majority. TH runoff primary is used in states such as Texas that have majority election rule in party primaries.
Open Primary
A type of party primary where a voter can choose on election day in which primary they will participate.
Closed Primary
A type of primary where a voter is required to specify a party preference when registered to vote.
Crossover voting
When members of on political party vote in the other party's primary to influence the nominee that is selected.
Plurality Vote
An election rule in which the candidate with the most votes wins regardless of whether it is a majority or not.
Party-column Ballot
A type of ballot used in a general election where all o ft. candidates from each party are listed in parallel columns under the party able.
Split-ticket Voting
A voter selecting candidates from one party for some offices and candidates from the other party for other offices.
Straight-ticket Voting
Selecting all of the candidates of one particular party.
Office-block ballot
A type of ballot used in a general election where the names of the parties' candidates are randomly listed in under each office.
Australian Ballot
A ballot printed by the government that allows people to vote in secret.
Early Voting
The practice of voting before election day at traditional voting locations, such as schools, and other locations, such as grocery and convenience stores.
Chad
The small pieces of paper produced when voting with punch card ballots.
Hanging Chad
When a Chad is not removed by the hole puncher during voting, cause of recounts, especially in the 2000 election in Florida.
Electronic Voting
Voting by the use of touch screens, more effective than punch card ballots that leave hanging chads.
Negative campaigning
A strategy used in election campaigns in which candidates attack opponents' issue positions or character.
Political Action Committees (PACs)
Organizations that raise and then contribute money to political candidates.
The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1972
- Established regulations that apply only to federal elections.
- It provided for public financing of presidential campaigns with tax dollars, limited the amount o money that individuals and PACs could contribute to campaigns, and required the disclosure of campaign donations.
Soft Money
Money spent by political parties on behalf of political candidates, especially for the purpose of increasing voter registration and turnout.
Independent Expenditures
Money individuals and organizations spend to promote a candidate without working or communicating directly with the candidate's campaign organization.
Two party system
A political system characterized by two dominant parties competing for political offices. In such systems, minor or third parties have little chance of wining.
Pragmatism
The philosophy that ideas should be judged on the bases of their practical results rather that on the purity of their principles.
Valence issues
Issue on which virtually all the public agree, of instance, such as peace and prosperity.
Position issues
issues on which the public is divided
Decentralization
Exercise of power at the state and local levels of government in addition to the national level.
Party realignment
The transition from one dominant party system to another
Partisan Identification
A person's attachment to one political party or the other.
Dealignment
When increasing numbers of voters choose not to identify with either of the two parties and consider themselves to be independents.
Evangelical Christians
A bloc of conservative Christians who are concerned wit such issues as family, religion, abortion, gay rights, and community morals, and often support the Republican Party.
Party Platform
The formal issue positions of a political party; specific elements are often referred to as planks int he party's platform.
Tea Party
A faction or groups of very conservative republicans generally resistant to compromise of its principles.
Tipping
A phenomenon that occurs when a demographic group grows large enough to change the political balance in the electorate
Swing voters
Voters who are not bound by party identification and who support candidates of different parties in different election years.
Precinct Convention
A gathering of citizens within a precinct- where they elect a representative to go to the county level and be a representative and vote at the county level for who their county elected.
Presidential Preference Primary
A primary election that allows voters in the party to vote directly for candidates seeking their party's presidential nomination.
Interest Groups
A voluntary organization that strives to influence public policy; sometimes known as a pressure group.
Lobbying
Directly contacting public officials to advocate for a public policy
Implementation
Administrative agencies carrying out broad public polices enforcing states laws, providing public services, and managing day-to-day government activities.
Discretion
Wide latitude to make decisions within the broad requirements set out in the law.
Texas Register
The official publication of the state that gives the public notice of proposed action sad adopted policies of executive branch agencies.
Clientele groups
The groups most affected by a government agency's regulations and programs; frequently the interest groups form close alliances with the agency based on mutual support and accommodation.
Co-optation
Such a close alliance developed between state regulatory agencies and their clientele group that the regulated have, in effect, become the regulators; the interest groups has captured such complete control of their regulatory agency that they are essentially self regulated.
Access
The ability to "get in the door" to sit down and talk to public officials. Campaign contributions are often used to gain access.
Astroturf Lobbying
Special-intrest groups orchestrating demonstrations to I've ht impression of widespread and spontaneous public support.
Umbrella Organizations
Associations formed by smaller interests joining together to promote common policy goals by making campaign contributions and hiring lobbyists to represent their interests.
Iron triangles
Long-standing alliances among interest groups, legislators, and bureaucrats held together by mutual self-interset that acts as subsystems in the legislative and administrative decision-making process.
Issue networks
Dynamic alliances among a wide range of individuals and groups activated by broad public policy questions.
Political movement
A mass alliance of like-minded individuals seeking broad changes in the direction of government policies.
Pluralist Theory
The view that, in a free society, public policy should be mad by a multitude of competing interest groups, ensuring that policies will not benefit a single elite at the expense of the many.
Elitist Theory
the view that the state is ruled by a small number of participants who exercise power to further their own self-interest.
Revolving Door
the interchange of employees between government agencies and private businesses with which they have dealings.
Conflict of interest
A situation in which public officers stand to benefit personally from their official decisions.
Late-train Contributions
Campaign funds given to the winning candidate after the elect up to 30 days before the legislature come into session. Such contributions are designed to curry favor with the winning candidates.