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Praxis / Comps Neuro Tricky Points
Terms in this set (49)
A brainstem lesion will usually result in what dysfunction?
Problems with swallowing
Central Nervous System comprised of
Brain, brain stem, spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System comprised of
1. Autonomic NS- innervates viscera (body organs)
2. Sympathetic- fight or flight
3.Parasympathtic-"rest and digest"
4. Somatic- conscious and unconscious sensory info / voluntary behavior
Are fissure of Rolando and Central sulcus the same?
Separates parietal and frontal lobes
Are Sylvian fissure and Lateral sulcus the same?
separates the frontal and parietal lobes superiorly from the temporal lobe inferiorly.
What is located at the 3rd inferior frontal gyrus?
Where is the primary motor cortex located?
In front of/ anterior to central sulcus
Dorsal portion of frontal lobe
What is the job of the primary motor cortex?
Carry out / control goal directed movements
Where is the premotor cortex located
What is the job of the premotor cortex
- storage of motor patterns and voluntary activities
Where do Upper Motor Neurons originate?
motor neurons that originate either in the motor region of the cerebral cortex or in the brain stem and carry motor information down to the lower motor neurons.
located in posterior temporal lobe typically
Pyramidal Tract is known as the _______motor activation pathway
The pyramidal tract's job is?
responsible for facilitating voluntary muscle movement including speech
Where does pyramidal tract originate?
Primary motor cortex
Where does the pyramidal tract go? What are its pathways?
travels to spinal tract or corticobulbar tract via the internal capsule
What is path of the corticospinal tract? What does it control?
-Originates and descends from motor cortex
-Thru internal capsule
-Arrive at midbrain and pons in brainstem
-At MEDULLA 80%-80% decussate and crossover
-Synapse in anterior horn of spinal cord motor(gray matter)
-Communicate w/ spinal nerves at dift. levels
-Innervates the muscles of limb and trunk
What is the path of the corticobulbar tract? What does it control?
-Originates and descends from motor cortex
-Thru internal capsule along with spinal tract fibers
-Terminate at BRAIN STEM at motor nuclei of CRANIAL NERVES
-Fibers decussate at the BS and terminate (end here)
-CNs exit skull and primarily innervate muscles of larynx, pharynx, soft palate, tongue, face, lips
Which path is more critical to speech? Cortiospinal or Corticobulbar?
What is referred to as the indirect activation system?
What is the main difference between the pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems?
PS=carry impulses that control voluntary, fine motor movements
EPS=transmits impulses that control postural support needed by the fine motor movements/ regulate movements
What subcortical structure is an essential part of the extrapyramidal system?
What is a main function of the extrapyradimal system & Basal Ganglia?
-maintain posture and muscle tone
-modulate motor activity but not innervate
Lesions in the basal ganglia can cause?
Dyskinesias, movement disorders
-Hyper and hypokinetic dysarthria
What is the job of the thalamus
- the brains sensory switchboard
-relays sensory data
-integrates sensorimotor information
What exactly are lower motor neurons!?
-motor neurons in spinal cord and cranial nerves
-nerve fibers that exit the spinal cord or brain and communicate with the cranial and spinal (peripheral nerves) for muscle innervation
Lower motor neuron activity eventually results in muscular movement. True/ False
What exactly are upper motor neurons!?
-Motor fibers within the nervous system
- huge nerve cells whose body is in the motor cortex but "axon" physically extends downward from the top of the brain, passing through the brain, crossing over to the right side, and contacting a second set of motor neurons in the cervical spinal cord in the neck area.
- probably 1-2 feet in length.
What exactly are lower motor neurons?
- part of the peripheral nervous system
-final route where nerve impulses are communicated to peripheral muscles resulting in muscular movement
What are signs of upper motor neuron disease or damage?
-spasticity of the muscles (a stiffness and resistance to movement),
- brisk reflexes and a positive Babinski sign,
What is the Babinski reflex? Is it indicative of upper or lower motor neuron damage?
What are signs of lower motor neuron disease/ damage?
-muscle weakness, muscle atrophy (wasting), and fasciculations (muscle twitching).
- can occur in any muscle group,
Cranial nerves are upper or lower motor neurons? Why?
- They send nerve impulse to for peripheral muscle movement
A patient has stiff and spastic muscles. UMN or LMN damage?
A patient has fasciculations and twitching of his face and tongue. UMN or LMN damage?
A patient's toes fan outward when tested for a Babinski reflex? Indicative of LMN or UMN damage?
A patient's muscles are weak and some appear to be in a state of atrophy? UMN or LMN damage?
Artery which supplies muscles of mouth, nose, forehead and face? (structures are on outside )
Artery which is major supplier of blood to brain? (brain is on the inside)
The internal carotid is so cool (like a rapper), it has 2 branches. What are they?
Middle Cerebral Artery -the big boy (MCA- like a rapper)
Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA)
What does the MCA supply?
-entire lateral surface of cortex and major regions of frontal lobe (cause it's the big dude)
MCA supplies blood to major areas involved with the motor and sensory functions of..
- language, speech and hearing
(Must have all of these to be the rapper MCA)
MCA is an important dude! what else does it supply?
-primary auditory cortex
-supramarginal gyrus (reading)
-angular gyrus (numbers, spatial , memory, attn.)
Damage/ CVAs to the MCA results in what? (remember, it's an important rapper dude.)
-reading/ writing problems
-impaired sense of pain, temp, touch, position
What about it's little brother, anterior cerebral artery?
What does it supply?
-middle portion of the parietal and frontal lobes
What happens when little ACA is damaged?
-concentration and reasoning
-(possible paralysis of feet/ legs)
A patient has severe word finding problems consistent with aphasia? MCA or ACA damage?
A patient has a sudden loss of judgment and can't concentrate? MCA or ACA damage?
A patient has problems with spatial judgment. MCA or ACA
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