MR.GREEN - Surface Water
Terms in this set (34)
A river and all of its tributaries.
A smaller river or stream that drains into a larger one.
All the land that drains into a river, either directly or through tributaries.
The high ground that separates on drainage basin from another.
The slope of a river bed (higher gradient = steeper slope).
The speed at which the water is moving (how far the amount of water moves in a given amount of time).
The amount of water that passed through a given point in a river in a given amount of time (EX//: gallons/seconds).
- dependent on season
- dependent on upstream/downstream
The process of scraping or wearing away.
The chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction of water.
All the rock and soil carried by a river.
Minerals dissolved in water.
The small stuff that is held up by the current.
The bigger stuff that is pushed along the bottom.
The amount of stuff that a river can carry.
The maximum size of the particles that a river can carry.
Fan-shaped deposit which forms where the gradient of the river decreases quickly; sediment fans out on either side of the stream / river.
A triangular deposit of soil that forms when the river slows down and enters a lake or ocean.
- rivers tend to have a flat gradient as they approach the bottom/middle of a drainage basin/the ocean
- floodplains are the flat areas beside the river that are covered with water when the rivers discharge is too large to be contained by the channel
Wide, sweeping curves of a river.
A horseshoe-shaped lake that forms when a meander is cut off.
Ridges of sediment formed along the edges of a river when sediment is deposited during a flood.
Methods of preventing loss of life, property, structures, and economic interests along a river
A flood wall built along a riverbed.
SPILLWAYS / FLOODGATES
Allow diversion of flood waters around high value areas, often through wetlands and to the ocean.
: stabilizing a riverbank to reduce erosion and keep a river in its current channel.
scooping out sediment in the bottom of a channel to deepen it and allow greater discharge.
- used as flood control by controlling the amount of water passing downstream
- used to generate electricity
- used to create a reservoir, which stores water for use during dry times
Water through the dam turns turbines to generate electricity
Create a reservoir, providing water even during dry times
List the pros of FLOOD CONTROLS
+ protect buildings/structures
+ protect lives
+ keep river from deviating past trade centers
+ allow more use of the floodplain
List the cons of FLOOD CONTROLS
- cost of continuous maintenance}
- very bad localized flooding}
} no guarantees that you will be safe
- detach the river from the floodplain
- loss of wetlands (disturbs ecosystems)
- no natural fertilization from sediment deposits during flooding
- subsidence (sinking) of land
- coastal erosion
List the pros of DAMMING
+ store water (irrigation)
+ prevent flooding (control discharge)
+ electric generation
+ easier navigation of river
+ recreation grows
+ provide employment
List the cons of DAMMING
- flood structure/force people to move
- destroy religious/ historical sites
- destroys ecosystems
- prevents fish from spawning
- sediment deposits behind dam