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traits that are dominant or recessive depending on gender, disorder pertinent to gender, ie females cant be colorblind..traits can only be carried or present on X or female gene.
missed errors during replication.
Mutations happen naturally-Occasional ____________________________.
A mutation that changes a single nucleotide, but does not change the amino acid created.
change occurs at one point in the gene.
A base are switched with another base, A instead of C
Mutation in which a single base is replaced, potentially altering the gene product. Only one amino acid affected.
When a base is inserted into sequence or deleted from sequence. Since the gene is read in 3s this causes shift in the reading frame-the entire gene following the mutation is read incorrectly.
mutation in DNA sequence in which a nucleotide is added (causes a shift in reading frame).
deletion (gene level)
mutation in DNA in which a nucleotide is removed (causs a shift in reading frame).
mutation that occurs at the chromosomal level resulting in changes in the gene distribution to gametes during meiosis; caused when parts of chromosomes break off or rejoin incorrectly-can interfere with many different genes.
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