one of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual.
chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs.
a diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family.
gene located on the X or Y chromosome.
traits that are dominant or recessive depending on gender, disorder pertinent to gender, ie females cant be colorblind..traits can only be carried or present on X or female gene.
Both chromosomes on chromosomes 1-22.
What does it mean to say a disorder is autosomal recessive?
How many chromosomes do humans have?
The chromosomes are paired up in ________________________________.
A change in DNA.
missed errors during replication.
Mutations happen naturally-Occasional ____________________________.
Sections of the DNA that can jump to other regions along the strand.
radiation or chemicals
Mutations can also occur from exposure to _________________ __ ___________.
Mutations can lead to more variation in organisms but can also lead to ______.
Albinism; cystic fibrosis
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy; Hemophilia; Colorblindness
3 copies of chromosome 21
3 copies of chromosome 13
3 copies of chromosome 18
Triple X syndrome
3 copies of X chromosome
1 Y and 2 X
Only 1 X 45 chromosomes
Cri du Chat
Part of chromosome 5 missing.
Human Genome Project
-Started in 1990
-Scientists tried to discover the entire Human DNA Sequence.
A mutation that changes a single nucleotide, but does not change the amino acid created.
changes in genetic code
change in chromosomes
change occurs at one point in the gene.
A base are switched with another base, A instead of C
Mutation in which a single base is replaced, potentially altering the gene product. Only one amino acid affected.
When a base is inserted into sequence or deleted from sequence. Since the gene is read in 3s this causes shift in the reading frame-the entire gene following the mutation is read incorrectly.
mutation in DNA sequence in which a nucleotide is added (causes a shift in reading frame).
deletion (gene level)
mutation in DNA in which a nucleotide is removed (causs a shift in reading frame).
mutation that occurs at the chromosomal level resulting in changes in the gene distribution to gametes during meiosis; caused when parts of chromosomes break off or rejoin incorrectly-can interfere with many different genes.
mutation in which extra parts of a chromosome are produced and repeated.
mutation in whick parts of a chromosome are reversed.
the movement of a segment of DNA from one chromosome to another, which results in a change in the position of the segment.
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