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RNA Transcription, Moves down the strand of
mRNA reading each base and building RNA's complimentary base.
The physical appearance or functional expression of a trait. (blonde hair, green eyes, estrogen receptor)
The genetic code underlying a single trait or set of traits. (specific DNA sequence for blonde hair, green eyes, estrogen receptor)
Regulating Gene Expression, How are transcription and translation controlled
60-80% of genes are constitutive
How are transcription and translation controlled
Two mechanisms control gene expression Repression & Induction
Repression , As the end-product builds up, repressors bind to the
promoter region of DNA and prevent RNA polymerase from binding
Base substitution, Chemical modification, DNA breaks, Slipped mispairing , Triplet expansion
Base substitution, Normal C G T C A, Base sub C G G C A, Occurs during replication, Also called a point mutation
Chemical modification, A base becomes chemically modified by a mutagenic chemical, Another class of point mutation
Similar to the deletion on a nucleotide level but much larger amounts of DNA are deleted
Genetic Recombination Technology, Modern scientists can insert or delete gene segments to
form new combinations of genes
PCR is the name of the assay that scientists use to look at what genes are being expressed in a
cell, tissue, or organism.
Why amplification? We have not yet developed the technology to
detect 1 copy of DNA although it is fast approaching.
DNA Polymerase...what is it? It is the enzyme in your body responsible for
naturally replicating your DNA
DNA Polymerase...what is it? It is the most accurate enzyme making less than
one mistake for every billion bases
PCR Applications, Why would you ever need to amplify the whole genome?
Forensics, Archeology, Disease Diagnosis
(Primers) It is generally accepted that if you find "part" of the message you have found
the entire message
(Analyzing RT-PCR)What is Gel Electrophoresis?
Forcing molecules through a gel with electric charge.
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