Terms in this set (69)
a political system in which the government controls every aspect of citizens' lives.
Fascist dictator of Italy. He was one of the members of the Axis Powers.
a political system in which the government is seen as more important than the individual.
This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.
German political party led by Adolf Hitler, emphasizing nationalism, racism, and war. When Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933, they became the only legal party.
Communist dictator of the Soviet Union. At the start of WWII, he had an alliance with Hitler, but later joined the Allied Powers.
one of the Axis Powers.
In World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.
Alliance of Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, and France during World War II.
practice of giving in to aggression in order to avoid war. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain gave Hitler part of Czechoslovakia in return for a promise not to demand more land.
the British prime minister who would not surrender to the Nazis and kept fighting them until the Allies won.
Approved by Congress in March 1941; The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States." The US sent billions of dollars worth of aid in the form of weapons, tanks, airplanes and food to Allied nations.
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
forced relocation and imprisonment of Japanese Americans during WWII because of fears that they may be spies for Japan.
Battle of Stalingrad
This battle was the turning point of WWII in Europe, as German forces in Russia were forced to retreat for the first time.
Also known as "designated day." June 6, 1944, 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. More than 5,000 ships and 13,000 aircraft supported the D-Day invasion, and by day's end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot- hold in Normandy.
Bataan Death March
March 1942. After the Japanese took control of the Philippines, American and Filipino soldiers were forced to march 65 miles to prison camps by their Japanese captors. It was called the Death March because so many of the prisoners died on their way to the camps.
Battle of Britain
July 1940, the Luftwaffe (German air force) invaded Britain. However, the British Royal Air Force (RAF) drove them out with the new technology of radar that let them know where the German planes were. The RAF destroyed some 2,300 of the Luftwaffe's aircraft. Hitler canceled the invasion of Britain.
Short-term loans that individual citizens made to the government that financed two-thirds of the war's cost.
He was the U. S. general who led the attack in North Africa in Nov. of 1942. He was the master organizer of the D-Day invasion in Europe (June 6, 1944).
A military strategy used during World War II that involved selectively attacking specific enemy-held islands and bypassing others. The Allies could use each captured island as a base for the next attack, while isolating Japanese forces on the bypassed islands.
Battle of Leyte Gulf
The largest naval engagement in military history in which Japan lost most of its remaining sea power and the ability to defend the Philippines. The Allies crushed the Japanese fleet, crippling Japan's naval power for the remainder of the war. First of the suicide attacks by Japanese pilots.
Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into Allied ships.
Battle of the Bulge
After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg, which pushed a 65 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
He was president during most of the Great Depression and most of WWII. He died in 1945 and did not live to see V-E Day.
May 8, 1945; Became known as "Victory in Europe Day" when the Germans surrendered.
Harry S. Truman
He succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. He led the country through the last few months of World War II and is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. His biggest task when he became President was winning the war in the Pacific.
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled people. About 6 million Jews had been killed during this, as well as millions of non-Jews (as stated above).
Prison camps used under the rule of Hitler. Conditions were inhumane, and prisoners, mostly Jewish people, were generally starved or worked to death, or killed immediately.
Extermination of an entire group of people. The Nazi plan was to kill the Jews in specially built death camps, mainly in German-occupied Poland. The camps were equipped with gas chambers designed to kill large numbers of people.
Code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II.
A nuclear weapon that produces tremendous power by splitting atoms.
The name of the American B-29 bomber that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, on Aug. 6, 1945.
August 6, 1945. Japanese city where the first atomic bomb was dropped, killing 80,000+ Japanese citizens instantly. Thousands more died later from burns and radiation poisoning. The bomb was dropped in the first place because Japan refused an unconditional surrender.
August 9, 1945. Japanese city where the second atomic bomb was dropped, killing 22,000+ Japanese citizens instantly. The second bomb was dropped because the Japanese still refused to surrender.
Effects of WWII
Over 50 millions people had been killed- more than half of them civilians. National economies in Europe and Asia were devastated. Millions of people were left without food, water, or shelter. The Holocaust occurred. As the strongest power left in the world, much of the responsibility for postwar rebuilding fell to the United States.
Start of WWII
Hitler and Stalin signed a non-agression pact with one another and they secretly agreed to divide Poland between them. September 1, 1939 Hitler's troops invaded Poland. Two days later, Britain and France declared war on Germany.
Ways people on the homefront supported the war effort
People purchased war bonds, which were loans people made to the government, collected scrap metal that could be used in weapon factories, rationed supplies like rubber, shoes and food, planted victory gardens and the food was sent to the Allies, and women took jobs that men typically held, like in factories.
Causes of WWII
1) Germany was bitter after WWI because it had to pay for the damage they caused, so they became aggressive 2) Global economic depression, 3) rise of militarism and facism, 4) Japanese aggeression in Asia and the Pacific
limited food, gas, sugar, tires--to ensure soldiers had enough
September 1, 1939
Germans invade Poland; start of WWII in Europe
June 6, 1944
D-Day; Allies' invasion on Normandy
Great Britain and France appeased Hitler by giving him the Sudetenland
Hitler and Stalin shocked Europe by agreeing not to attack each other
President of the US who made the order to drop the atomic bomb
Neutrality Act of 1939
act that allowed nations at war to buy goods and arms in the U.S. if they paid cash and carried the merchandise on their own ships; "cash and carry" policy
instituted by FDR against Japan to stop Japanese expansion in the Pacific
Battle of Britain
Hitler's bombing campaign to get the British to surrender; Prime Minister Winston Churchill made the statement "They would never surrender"
Bataan Death March
Forced march of U.S. troops captured by the Japanese in the Philippines
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Islands where the U.S. dropped the atomic bomb to gain unconditional surrender of Japan
Became known as Victory in japan day, September 2, 1945
Victory in Europe; May 8, 1945
strategy used for capturing strategic Pacific locations
Battle of the Bulge
Germany's last stand against the Allies; they used its reserves and demoralized its troops in battle
Battle of Midway
Major turning point in the war in the Pacific; Japan will not be able to dominate in the Pacific
The first day of Operation Overlord; Allied troops stormed the beaches of Normandy to invade France; June 6, 1944; forced Germans to fight on two fronts
Formal alliance between Germany, Italy, and Japan
Germany's take over of Austria
British Prime Minister who believed Nazi aggression threatened all democracies; spoke against appeasement
Miracle of Dunkirk
Greatest Rescue Mission in WWII; British and French troops had to be rescued out of France to escape across the English Channel to Britain; a huge evacuation mission
Battle of Iwo Jima
Some of the worst fighting of World War II occurred during this battle, with approximately 6,000 American soldiers killed and another 19,000 injured. Of the 21,000 Japanese soldiers fighting on the island, approximately 20,000 were killed during the battle.
Battle of Okinawa
Operation Iceberg, was fought from March to June of 1945. The battle is well known for being the largest amphibious assault of the Pacific Theater as well as having some of the highest casualties of any battle of World War II.
led the U.S. forces in the Philippines and surrounding areas in the Pacific Ocean. He is well-known for officially accepting Japan's surrender on September 2, 1945 on behalf of the Allied Powers. After serving in World War II, MacArthur managed the U.S. occupation of Japan from 1945 until 1951 and served as a general in the Korean War for one year.
can be defined as a policy in which a nation refrains from getting involved in military alliances, as well as the belief that a nation should avoid all wars that do not include territorial self-defense
Japanese Americans, around 11,000 German Americans and a few hundred Italian Americans were placed in camps during the war.
Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin agreed to respect democratic ideals in Eastern European nations that were currently occupied by Soviet troops in exchange for keeping control of territory that had belonged to Poland before the war. Germany would be required to meet terms of an unconditional surrender and would be divided into four occupation zones following the end of hostilities. Poland's independence would be reinstated. The establishment of the United Nations was also proposed.
was the final meeting between Allied leaders of World War II. The meeting lasted from July 17 until August 2, 1945. Those in attendance were Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill, and Harry S. Truman. President Truman had recently come to the presidency following the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt in April of 1945.
was issued on July 26, 1945, and called for the immediate, unconditional surrender of Japanese forces. The language of the declaration was harsh, stating that Japan must surrender unconditionally or face "prompt and utter destruction." Japanese leaders refused to acknowledge the declaration.
General George S. Patton
was a four star general of the U.S. Army. During World War II He later played a major role in the Battle of the Bulge, saving a number of surrounded American units. This battle was the last major German offensive of the war.
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