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150 terms

D Psych Quizzes

STUDY
PLAY
Developmental science is a field of study devoted to
understanding constancy and change throughout the lifespan
The lifespan perspective on development assumes that
development is affected by a blend of biological, psychological, and social forces
Jackson, a professional baseball player, is convinced that his two sons will both be outstanding athletes. Jackson probably believes that athletic ability is mostly determined byIn an experiment on the effects of music on puzzle solving skills, the independent variable would be:
nature
In an experiment on the effects of music on puzzle solving skills, the independent variable would be:
the type of music played
Professor Pedagogy's research shows that participation in extracurricular activities is correlated with grades in school. Based on this study's findings, what can Professor Pedagogy conclude?
Participation in extracurricular activities is related to grades.
If I want to observe how people act in the "real world" in their normal ways, I would want to use:
naturalistic observation
Dr. Luna conducts a study comparing the eating habits of various age groups. To do this she surveys a group of teenagers, a group of adults, and a group of the elderly at the same time. She has just performed what type of study?
Cross-sectional
Researchers find a correlation between shark attacks and warm temperatures, we can conclude:
heat and sharks attacks are related
Although we have many different research options available to us, the only one that can determine cause and effect is an experiment.
True
Which of the following correlations is the weakest?
0.25
A phenotype is your:
observable characteristics
Short segments of DNA containing units of hereditary information are called:
genes
Gametes (Eggs & Sperm) are formed through a cell division process known as:
meiosis
A human will have ______ pairs of chromosomes.
23
Brian and his wife Tonya both have brown eyes. They have 3 children, and each of them has brown eyes. Tonya is currently pregnant and it is a possibility that their newborn will have blue eyes.
True
6) Hemophilia is an X-linked gene, this means that ______ are more likely to suffer from it:
males
Sally suffers from a chromosomal abnormality, this means that she:
either has an extra or is missing a chromosome
A zygote that separates into two clusters of cells instead of just one produces:
identical twins
Development is the result of an ongoing interaction between heredity and the environment.
True
When asked to answer the question "who am I?" Sam described himself as part of a group. He is likely to have come from a __________ culture.
Collectivist
The amnion
encloses the developing organism in amniotic fluid.
The umbilical cord
connects the placenta to the developing organism.
The period of the embryo lasts from
implantation through the eighth week of pregnancy
The Age of Viability occurs between _________ weeks.
22 and 26
A teratogen is
any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period.
The longest stage of labor is the
first, dilation and effacement of the cervix
Preterm infants
are those born several or more before their due date.
The _______ reflex helps with survival by facilitating feeding.
sucking
In industrialized nations, _________ is the leading cause of infant mortality between 1 and 12 months.
SIDS
_________ is the least developed of a newborn baby's senses.
Vision
With the transition to early childhood, many children
become unpredictable, picky eaters.
__________ are the leading cause of childhood death in industrialized countries.
Unintentional injuries
Which of the following is true about sex differences in motor skills in early childhood?
Girls are ahead of boys in fine-motor skills.
In early pretend-play, toddlers (18 - 24 months) use:
only realistic objects.
Contemporary researchers believe that make-believe play
not only reflects, but also contributes to, children's cognitive and social skills.
According to Piaget, magical thinking is common during the preschool years because
young children egocentrically assign human purposes to physical events.
Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions, is called
animistic thinking.
Piaget's conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates that preoperational children's thinking is characterized by __________in that they focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features.
centration
Research shows that children more often use private speech when
tasks are appropriately challenging and they are confused about how to proceed.
With regard to questions used to elicit children's autobiographical narratives, preschoolers who experience the ________style recall _________ information about past events.
elaborative; more
At 16 months, Brynn is in Piaget's _____ stage of cognitive development.
sensorimotor
According to Piaget, specific psychological structures called _____ are organized ways of making sense of experience.
Schemes
Two-year-old Laura dropped a block into her toy box. She then dropped a cup, and a doll into the box, throwing some objects gently, while using more force with others. Laura's modification of her dropping scheme is an example of
accommodation.
According to Piaget, a _____ is a means of building schemes in which infants try to repeat chance motor behaviors again and again.
circular reaction
Baby Mario doesn't look for his pacifier, which his mother has hidden behind a pillow. Mario has yet to master
object permanence
Which of the following is true about infantile amnesia?
Most older children and adults cannot retrieve events that happened before age 3.
Vygotsky believed that complex mental activities have their origin in
social interaction
According to Vygotsky, _____ is a range of tasks that a child cannot yet handle alone but can do with the help of more skilled partners.
the zone of proximal development
Intelligence test scores of infants and toddlers often do not reflect their true abilities because
they easily become distracted, fatigued, or bored during testing.
Core knowledge theorists assume that
infants start out life with a set of prewired understandings.
What memory strategy might 4-year-old Winnie use?
Scripts
You show 3-year-old Mattie a sponge that has been painted to look like a rock. After letting her touch the sponge, what is she likely to say it "really" is?
a rock
An important motivator of prosocial behavior is
empathy
According to social learning theorists, children learn to behave morally
by observing and imitating people who demonstrate appropriate behavior.
Mia bit her brother, so her father would not let her watch TV. This technique, known as withdrawal of privileges, _____________.
allows Mia's father to avoid harsh techniques that could easily intensify into violence.
Shelby tells her classmates not to play with Sophia because "she lies." This is an example of __________ aggression.
relational
Marlena teases Jessica by calling her a "dodo head." This is an example of ________ aggression.
verbal
At present, ___________ bear(s) most responsibility for protecting children from exposure to media violence and other inappropriate content.
parents
In Michaela's preschool classroom, the girls spend more time in the housekeeping and art centers, while the boys play with blocks and Legos. This is an example of
gender typing
The ____________ child-rearing style is the most successful approach.
authoritative
With the transition to early childhood, many children
become unpredictable, picky eaters.
_____ are the leading cause of childhood death in industrialized countries.
Unintentional injuries
Which of the following is true about sex differences in motor skills in early childhood?
Girls are ahead of boys in fine-motor skills.
In early pretending, toddlers use
only realistic objects.
Contemporary researchers believe that make-believe play
not only reflects, but also contributes to, children's cognitive and social skills.
According to Piaget, magical thinking is common during the preschool years because
young children egocentrically assign human purposes to physical events.
Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions, is called
animistic thinking.
Piaget's conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates that pre-operational children's thinking is characterized by _____ is that they focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features.
centration
Research shows that children more often use private speech when
tasks are appropriately challenging and they are confused about how to proceed.
With regard to questions used to elicit children's autobiographical narratives, preschoolers who experience the _____ style recall _____ information about past events.
elaborative;more
Overweight and obese children are at an increased risk for:
cardiovascular problems, high blood pressure, and diabetes, low self-esteem and depression, and being overweight or obese as an adult
Which of the following is NOT a potential causes of obesity in children?
Schools increasing the amount of time spent on physical education
Who would be most likely to have the best gross motor-skills?
Marc, an 8 year old boy
During a conservation-of-water task, Emma can focus on several aspects of the problem and relate them, rather than centering on just one aspect. Therefore, Emma is capable of
decantation
When Taylor was given a list of ingredients to memorize, she immediately repeated the list to herself over and over. Which memory strategy did Taylor use?
rehearsal
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
is usually a lifelong disorder.
Adoption studies show a clear influence of __________ on intelligence.
both nature and nurture
Vivian is an Asian-American girl, who is asked about her gender prior to taking a math test. She is likely to:
score lower than Shizuko, an Asian-American girl who was asked about her ethnicity
Children in the concrete operational stage of cognitive development have an important limitation, in that they can think in an organized, logical fashion only when:
dealing with concrete information they can perceive directly.
Which of the following is NOT one of Sternberg's types of intelligence?
Consummate Intelligence
If you ask 3-year-old Winnie to tell you about herself, she will probable describe herself in terms of
observable characteristics
_____ contributes to preschooler's improved emotional self-regulation.
Language
In terms of self-concept, children in middle/late childhood are MORE likely than children in early childhood to:
use outer states to describe themselves.
Children have the highest self-esteem when:
they perform competently on a task they care about.
The term that describes the extent to which children are liked or disliked by their peer group is:
psychometric status.
What is the belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes called?
self-awareness
The increased capacity for self-regulation that is seen in middle and late childhood is linked to developmental
advances in:
the prefrontal cortex in the brain.
Julio cannot get his science project to work. In fact, it seems to him that nothing he makes ever works properly. According to Erik Erikson, Julio is at risk for developing a sense of:
inferiority
Which of the following characteristics is ascribed to males according to our common stereotypes?
uninterested in power
Middle childhood is a period in which some control is transferred from parent to child. This process involves:
bioregulation
Which of the following characteristics become increasingly common and important in friendship?
compatibility and self-disclosure
Bellah sits in the back of the room, and very few of the children in class even know his name. Bellah's sociometric status is PROBABLY _______.
controversial
In terms of self-concept, children in middle/late childhood are MORE likely than children in early childhood to:
compare themselves with their peers.
Children have the highest self-esteem when:
they perform competently on a task they care about.
The term that describes the extent to which children are liked or disliked by their peer group is:
sociometric status.
What is the belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes called?
self-efficacy
The increased capacity for self-regulation that is seen in middle and late childhood is linked to developmental advances in:
the prefrontal cortex in the brain.
Julio cannot get his science project to work. In fact, it seems to him that nothing he makes ever works properly. According to Erik Erikson, Julio is at risk for developing a sense of:
inferiority.
Which of the following characteristics is ascribed to males according to our common stereotypes?
aggressive
Middle childhood is a period in which some control is transferred from parent to child. This process involves:
coregulation
Which of the following characteristics become increasingly common and important in friendship?
similarity and personal qualities
Bellah sits in the back of the room, and very few of the children in class even know his name. Bellah's sociometric status is PROBABLY .
Neglected
Research on weight gain revels that children who get less nightly sleep are
more likely to be overweight five years later.
Which of the following children is at the greatest risk for asthma?
Thomas, an overweight African-American boy who lives in an inner-city area
Gains in _____ contribute to a child's ability to play games with rules.
perspective taking
During a conservation-of-water task, Emme can focus on several aspects of the problem and relate them, rather than centering on just one aspect. Therefore, Emme is capable of
decentration
Most reading experts believe that
combining phonics with whole language is the best approach for teaching beginning reading.
Adoption studies revel that
when children of low-IQ mothers are adopted by parents who are above average in income and education, they score above average in IQ.
Studies suggest that the high-stakes testing mandated by the U.S. No Child Left Behind Act
often undermines the quality of education by using fear of failure to motivate performance.
American education
places greater emphasis on traditional test scores.
According to the "random events" theory of biological aging,
DNA in body cells is gradually damaged through spontaneous or externally caused mutations.
The _______________ theory of aging receives some support from kinship studies indicating that longevity is a family trait.
genetically programmed
Free radicals are thought to be involved in
disorders of aging
Physical changes in early adulthood are usually
so gradual that most are hardly noticeable
Mike is 38 years old. How has the maximum vital capacity of his lungs changed from when he was 18?
It has decreased
The upper biological limit of motor capacity is reached in the
first part of early adulthood
About 40 percent of Americans engage in
no regular brief sessions of even light activity.
The most commonly abused substances in the United States are
cigarettes and alcohol
When overweight and obesity rates are combined, ____ percent of Americans are considered to be at an unhealthy weight.
67
In the United States, drug taking peaks around ages
19 to 22
If 25-year old Marc was asked how we can tell the meaning of a painting, and he was capable of Relativisitc Thinking, what would be the most likely answer?
It can mean something different to each of us.
According to Piaget, in what stage of cognitive development is Irene, a 30-year old woman?
Formal Operations
Which of the following factors have an influence on vocational choice:
Teachers, Sterotypes, and Family Influence
As many as half of college students eventually drop out.
False
The majority of adults between the ages of 18 - 25 report feeling like a full-grown adult.
False
According to Erikson, what do we need to develop before we can achieve Intimacy?
Identity
Kristin just turned 30 years old, and is single (and never married) without children. Her mother Barbara constantly asks her when she is going to get married and give her Grandchildren. Although Kristin explains that 30 is not really all that old, Barbara replies that when SHE was 30, she was married and already had 3 children. This conflict is most likely explained by differing:
Social Clocks
Juan and Minny have recently started dating. Even though they do not yet know each other well, they are very attracted to one another and find it difficult to not hug and kiss all of the time. What type of love are they currently displaying high amounts of?
Romantic Love
Angela and Chris have a Traditional Marriage. They are happy to each have their own distinct roles in the marriage, with clear expectations of responsibilities. In Angela and Chris' marriage, who is more likely to do the majority of the housework?
Angela
Pricilla and David have a Egalitarian Marriage. They are happy to regard each other as true partners in the marriage, with a clear balance of responsibilities. In Pricilla and David's marriage, who is more likely to do the majority of the housework?
Pricilla
Younger students who divide information, values, & authority into right and wrong or good and bad engage in
dualistic thinking.
In college, Edward came to the realization that his own beliefs were often subjective. He noted that his roommate, who held vastly different beliefs from his own "truth." Edward was engaged in
relativistic thinking.
During the realistic period of vocational development, the first step is often _____ and the final phase is _____.
exploration; crystallization
Many American employers regard recent high school graduates as
poorly prepared for skilled business occupations.
Which of the following is not a factor in students dropping out of college:
Having help from the institution/community
The life pursuits and subjective judgements of many contemporary young people have spawned the _____ transitional period, extending from the late teens to the mid-twenties.
emerging adulthood
According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of early adulthood is
intimacy versus isolation.
Which of the following is true about mate selection?
Little support exists for the idea that opposites attract.
Research suggests that when Bobby and Betty select their mates, Betty will assign greater weight to _____, while Bobby will place more emphasis on _____.
ambition;physical attractiveness
Maryellen and Mitchell have been dating for over a year. Their romance will most likely break up without _____ love.
companionate
Middle adulthood begins around age _______ and ends around age _______.
40; 65
Karla, age 60, has a debilitating disorder involving a great loss of bone strength. Karla suffers from
osteoporosis.
Mr. Chamberlain is 53. According to his doctor, Mr. Chamberlain's fertility has diminished but is retained. Mr. Chamberlain has reached the midlife reproductive transition called
the climacteric
Which person is the most likely to be affected by osteoporosis?
Jessica, who is thin with a small body frame
Debbie was unhappy at work. Instead of identifying and solving the problem, she internalized it,
using private selfcontrol. Debbie used a(n) __________ coping strategy.
emotion-centered
On intelligence tests, vocabulary, verbal comprehension, and logical reasoning items measure __________ intelligence.
crystalized
Dr. Montoya believes that as neurons in the brain die, breaks in the neural network occur. The brain adapts by forming bypasses—new synaptic connections that go around the breaks but are less efficient. Dr. Schlocter subscribes to the___________ view.
neural network
Dr. Vincini believes that older adults experience greater loss of information as it moves through the cognitive system. As a result, the whole system must slow down to inspect and interpret the information. Dr. Richter subscribes to the__________ view.
information-loss
From the twenties into the sixties, the amount of information people can retain in _________ memory diminishes.
working
Middle-aged adults tend to be rational decision makers because they
use practical problem-solving strategies.