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inside chloroplasts

Where does photosynthesis take place in plants?

thylokites, membranes

Chloroplasts contain ____________, - saclike photosynthetic ________________.

grana, granum

Thylokoids are arranged in stacks called ___________. A singular stack is called a _________________.

organize clorophyll and other pigments into clusters called photosystems.

What do proteins in the thylakoid membrane do?

light-collecting units of the chloroplasts.

Photosystems are

the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions, or Calvin cycle.

The reactions of photosystems include:

within the thylakoid membranes

Where do the light-dependent reactions take place?

stroma, outside

The Calvin cycle takes place in the __________, which is the region _________ the thylakoid membranes.

the electrons gain a great deal of energy

What happens when electrons in chlorophyll absorb sunlight?

electron carriers, chlorophyll, molecules

Cells use ____________ ____________ to transport these high-energy electrons from ______________ to other _________________.


Electron carriers, such as NADP+ , transport ___________ .

accepts, hydrogen. NADPH

NADP+ ____________ and holds 2 high-energy electrons along with a ___________ ion. This converts NADP+ into _________.

NADPH, chemical

The conversion of NADP+ into _____________ is one way some of the energy from sunlight can be trapped in _______________ form.

carry the high-energy electrons to chemical reactions elsewhere in the cell.

After conversion, the NADPH will

molecules, glucose

The high energy electrons carried by the NADPH are used to build a variety of ___________________ the cell needs, including carbohydrates like ______________,


The light-dependent reactions produce oxygen gas and convert __________ and NADP+ into the energy carriers _____________ and _______________.

pigments, increasing

Photosynthesis begins when ___________ in photosystem II absorb light, ________________ their energy level.

the electron transport chain

After the pigments absorb light in photosystem II the high energy electrons are passed on to

2H+ ions, oxygen atom, energized electrons

____________ on the thylakoid membrane break _________ molecules into:

the energized electrions from water molecules

What replaces the high energy electronns that chlorophyll loses to the electron transport chain/

Oxygen is left behind and released into the air

What happens as plants remove electrons from water?

hydrogen ions are released inside the thylakoid membrane.

What happens to the hydrogen ions left behind when water is broken apart?

transport, stoma

Energy from the electrons is used to __________ H+ ions from the _______ into the inner thylakoid space.

electrons, photosystem I.

Hi-energy _____________ move through the electron transport chain from photosystem II to ________________.


Pigments in photosystem I use energy in light to re-energize the ____________.


After the electrons are re-energized in photosystem I they are picked up by ____________ along with H+ ions, and becomes ________________.


As electrons are passed from _______________ to NADP, more H+ ions are pumped across the membrane.

hydrogen ions, negatively

After the H+ ions are pumped across the membrane, the inside of the membrane fills up with positively charged ______________ _______, which makes the outside of the membrane _______________ charged.


The differences in charges across the membrane provides the energy to make _________.


H+ ions cannot ___________ the membrane directly.

ATP synthase

The cell membrane contains a protein called ______ ___________ that allows H+ ions to pass through it.


As H+ ions pass through ATP synthase, the ____________ rotates.

ADP, phosphate

As the protein rotates, ATP synthase binds ________ and a ___________ group together to produce ATP.


Light-dependent electron transport produces not only high-energy electrons, but _________ as well.

water, ADP, and NADP

What do light-dependent reactions use?

oxygen, ATP, and NADPH

What do light-dependent reactions produce?

sugars, compounds.

Oxygen,ATP, and NADPH provide the energy to build energy-containing ____________ from low-energy __________.

ATP, NADPH, stable, energy

__________ and ________ formed by ligh-dependent reactions contain an abundance of chemical energy, but they are not ____________ enough to store that ___________ for more than a few minutes.

use the energy that ATP and NADPH contain to build high-energy compounds that cannot be stored for a long time.

During the Calvin cycle plants

ATP, NADPH, high energy sugars

The Calvin cycle uses ______ and _________ from the light dependent reactions to produce ____________ __________ ___________.

they do not require light tp be produced

Why are the reactions in the Calvin cycle called the light-independent reactions?

6, atmosphere, carbon molecules

In the Calvin cycle, _____ carbon dioxide molecoles enter the cycle from the ____________ and combine with 5- ___________ _________________.

3-carbon, energy

The result of the Calvin cycle is 12 ______-__________ molecules, which are then converted into higher-___________ forms.

ATP, electrons

The energy for the conversion in the Calvin cycle comes from ________ and high-energy ___________ from NADPH.

3-carbon, cycle

Two of the twelve __-________ molecules are removed from the ___________.

sugars, amino acids

The molecules removed from the Calvin cycle are used to produce ____________, lipids, __________ ________ and other compounds.

converted, carbon, cycle

The 10 remaining 3 carbon molecules in the Calvin Cycle are __________ back into six 5- ___________ molecules, which are used to begin the next ______________.

energy, chemical

The light-dependent reactions trap __________ from the sun and change it to a ______________ form.

light independent, sugars, water

The ______________ _____________ reactions use the chemical energy to produce stable, high-energy ________________ from carbon dioxide and _____________.

availability of water, temperature, and intensity of light.

What factors affect photosynthesis?

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