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Autonomic Nervous System
Terms in this set (179)
The of motor neurons is (sometimes / always) excitatory?
In the somatic nervous system a single (myelinated / unmyelinated) axon extends from the CNS to a ___________?
skeletal muscle fiber
In the autonomic nervous system there are typically 2 neurons between the cord and the effector. What are the neurons called?
An exception to the rule that there are 2 neurons in the autonomic system is that there is only one neuron between the cord and the _______?
The autonomic nervous system receives input from _______ sensory neurons?
Are visceral sensory inputs consciously perceived most of the time?
What visceral sensation might you consciously experience?
pain from angina
Is motor innervation in the autonomic system only excitatory?
no, it can be inhibitory
What are the 3 autonomic motor effectors?
Tissue innervated by the ANS often function to some extent even if the nerve supply is _______?
What part of the ANS is associated with fight or flight?
What part of the ANS is associated with rest and digest?
Increased alertness and metabolic activity result from (sympathetic / parasympathetic) effects?
Does sympathetic response only occur during actual danger?
no, can be an emotional response (anxiety)
Which branch of ANS is responsible for conserving and restoring body energy?
In which branch of ANS is output directed to smooth muscle of gut and respiratory system?
Most organs are innervated by (sympathetic / parasympathetic / both)?
The two motor neurons in series in the ANS are the ___ganglionic and the ____ganglionic?
The cell body of the preganglionic neuron is where?
CNS (brain or cord)
The preganglionic axon is (myelinated / unmyelinated)?
The preganglionic axon is a (large / small) type (A/B/C) fiber?
The axon of the preganglionic neuron extends to, and synapses at the _______ _______?
Where is the cell body of the postganglionic neuron?
The postganglionic axon is (myelinated / unmyelinated)?
The post-ganglionic axon is a (large / small) type (A/B/C) fiber?
From the ganglion, the postganglionic axon extends to the ________?
Preganglionic cell bodies are in the (lateral / dorsal / ventral) horns of gray matter from T1 to L2?
The section of the cord giving rise to the sympathetic neurons is the ________ division?
What is Site of synapse between preganglionic and postganglionic neuron?
What are the two types of sympathetic ganglia?
sympathetic chain (trunk) ganglia
The __________ ganglia form a vertical row on either side of the spinal column?
The sympathetic trunk runs from the ________ to the ________
base of skull to coccyx
Sympathetic trunk ganglia postganglionic neurons primarily innervate organs (above / below) the diaphragm?
The names of the 3 ganglia in the cervical region of the sympathetic trunk are what?
superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia
Sympathetic trunk preganglionic axons are (long / short) so you would expect them to synapse (near to / far from) the cord?
Postganglionic axons of the sympathetic trunk are (long / short)?
Sympathetic trunk ganglia are located lateral and (anterior / posterior) to vertebral column?
Are sympathetic trunk ganglia paired?
are the numbers of paired __________?
sympathetic trunk ganglia
The superior cervical ganglion innervates the _______ and ______?
Sweat glands, smooth muscle of eye, blood vessels of face, lacrimal glands, pineal gland, nasal mucosa, salivary glands, heart are innervated by (superior / middle / inferior) cervical ganglion?
The middle and inferior cervical ganglia innervate only the _______?
Sympathetic prevertebral ganglia are located anterior to the vertebral column and close to large ________ arteries?
Postganglionic neurons of the prevertebral ganglia innervate organs (above / below) the diaphragm?
Flank celiac trunk, inf. diaphragm
Near artery of same name, upper abd
Near artery of same name, middle abd
Near renal artery
Near renal artery
The above are the 5 major ______?
Each of the major prevertebral ganglia surround an artery by the same name except for the ________ ganglion?
The first way for a spinal nerve to synapse with a ANS postganglionic neuron is to synapse with the posganglionic neuron in the _______ ganglion?
The 2nd way for a spinal nerve to synapse with a ANS postganglionic neuron is to ________ or ________ in the sympathetic trunk before synapsing?
ascend or descend
The 3rd way for a spinal nerve to synapse with a ANS postganglionic neuron is to pass through the trunk and synapse in a _______ ganglion?
The 4th way for a spinal nerve to synapse with a ANS postganglionic neuron is to pass through the trunk and prevertebral ganglion and go all the way to __________?
the adrenal medulla
Axons of the sympathetic pathway exit the cord via the (dorsal / ventral) root?
When exiting the cord the sympathetic pathway fibers exit through the ______ foramen?
What Connects anterior ramus of spinal nerve with sympathetic ganglia?
The white ramus aka __________ is (myelinated / unmyelinated)?
white rami communicantes
Enter spinal nerve
Form cephalic periarterial nerves
Form sympathetic nerves
Form splanchnic nerves
The above are the 4 possible paths for axons of _________ neurons?
In the sympathetic pathway the axons of postganglionic neurons exit ganglia via ______ rami?
What connects ganglia with spinal nerves?
gray rami (communicantes)
If a postganglionic neuron enters a spinal nerve the axon of the postganglionic neuron exits the ganglia via _____ rami?
Is the gray ramus myelinated?
When a sympathetic axon enters a spinal nerve it innervates effectors in the skin, trunk, and _____?
(Includes sweat glands, smooth muscle of blood vessels, arector pili)
Some preganglionic axons ascend to the ________ ganglion to synapse with postganglionic neurons?
When fibers ascend to the superior cervical ganglion they form ______ _____ nerves when they exit?
What arteries do cephalic periarterial nerves wrap around?
those going to the head
What Innervates skin of face, arector pili, smooth muscle of eye, lacrimal, pineal glands, nasal mucosa, and salivary glands?
If the ANS axons form sypathetic nerves, synapse in which cervical ganglia?
Axons of postganglionic sympathetic neurons form sympathetic nerves to the ______ and _______?
heart and lungs
The preganglionic axons of sympathetic nerves synapse from T2 to ?
If PNS fibers form splanchnic nerves the preganglionic axons pass through the trunk and (synapse / do not synapse) then goes to the ________ ganglia?
do not synapse
Which nerve receives axons from T5 to T10?
greater splanchnic nerve
Which nerve goes to celiac ganglion and forms the celiac plexus?
Postganglionc axons of the ________ nerve innervate blood vessels to stomach, spleen, liver, kidneys, and small intestine?
Which nerve receives preganglionic axons from T10 to T11?
Which sympathetic ganglion does the lesser splanchnic nerve pass throuh?
After the celiac ganglion the lesser splanchnic nerve enters which two ganglia?
aorticorenal and superior mesenteric
Postganglionic axons of the lesser splanchnic nerve innervate blood vessels of the what? (2)
small intestine and colon
What nerve receives innervation from the T12 level?
least splanchnic nerve
Is the least splanchnic nerve always present?
What plexus does the least splanchnic nerve enter?
What splanchnic nerve get innervation from L1-L4?
lumbar splanchnic nerve
What ganglion does the lumbar splanchnic nerve enter?
Postganglionic axons of the lumbar splanchnic nerve innervate what?
distal colon (and rectum)
What nerve ALSO extends through hypogastric plexus and innervates blood vessels of urinary bladder and genital organs?
When preganglionic axons do not synapse on another neuron they pass through the trunk, greater splanchnic nerve, celiac ganglion and then synapse of what?
chromaffin cells of medulla
The adrenal medulla develops embryologically from the _______ cells?
Chromaffin cells release what?
epinephrine and norepinephrine
Sympathetic axons may synapse with up to 20 other neurons. This is called what?
Divergence allows the sympathetic to affect the entire body (in sequence / simultaneously)?
What promotes exercise in terms of blood flow to muscles (increased) and to skin (decreased) during exercise?
sympathetic nervous system
The 5 "E"s are examples of _______?
Heart rate, force of cardiac contraction and blood pressure increases
Respiratory rate increases
Skin cold and sweaty
These are all examples of what?
What organs get LESS blood due to sympathetic action?
In sympathetic action blood vessels to muscle, liver and adipose tissue do what?
Sympathetic response favors rapid production of what?
Release of glucose from the liver and subsequent glycolysis in liver liberate glucose for the production of _______ during sympathetic response?
Why do adipose cells get more blood flow during sympathetic response?
lipolysis happens as precursor for ATP
Divergence of postgonglionic axons
Norepinephrine remains in synaptic cleft
Epi and NE released from adrenal medulla
These are reasons that the effects of the sympathetic system are more ________ compared to parasympathetic?
Preganglionic cell bodies of ___________ are found in CN 3, 7, 9, 10 and sacral nerves.
the parasympathetic system
The craniosacral division refers to the _______?
In the parasympathetic system Preganglionic axons synapse with postganglionic cell bodies in ________ ganglia?
Parasympathetic ganglia are close to (spinal cord / visceral organs)?
These 4 are _______ region parasympathetic ganglia?
Cranial nerve III gives rise to the _____ ganglion that innervates _______ (organ)?
the eye (iris and lens)
Facial nerve (CN 7) gives rise to the pterygopalatin and _______ ganglia?
Salivary, nasal, and lacrimal glands are innervated by what parasympathetic ganglia?
Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN 9) gives rise to the _______ ganglion that innervates the ________?
parotid salivary glands
Vagus nerve (CN X) gives rise to ganglia located in the walls of target organs. What are the target organs?
most visceral organs
Large intestine, urinary bladder, ureters, and reproductive organs are innervated by parasympathetic nerves that arise from S2 to ?
Preganglionic neuron cell bodies in oculomotor nucleus of midbrain lie (medial / lateral) to optic nerve?
Which parasympathetic ganglion is located near the posterior aspect of the orbit?
Parasympathetic action causes pupil to (constrict / dilate)?
Submandibular and sublingual salivary glands get parasympathetic innervation from the ______ ganglion?
Preganglionic axons from cell bodies in gray matter of S2 to S4 exit through ventral roots to form the ________ splanchnic nerves?
What nerves synapse in terminal ganglia in walls of the viscera?
What nerves Innervate smooth muscle and glands in walls of colon, ureters, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs?
Preganglionic axons that terminate in terminal ganglia synapse wit (many / few) postganglionic neurons which supply (different effectors / the same effector)?
Parasympathetic responses tend to be (body wide / localized to a single effector)?
localized to a single effector
The above are all _______?
Tangled nerve networks in thorax, abdomen, and pelvis are known as ________?
Autonomic plexi contain (sympathetic / parasympathetic / both)?
Sympathetic ganglia and autonomic sensory nerves lie along major ________?
Do the cardiac, pulmonary, and esophageal plexi exist?
Which autonomic plexus is largest?
The celiac (aka solar) plexus includes the celiac trunk, two large celiac ganglia, and two _______ ganglia?
Stomach, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, adrenal medulla, testes, ovary. These organs are all innervated by the _______?
What plexus innervates the large and small intestine?
What innervates the large intestine only?
Do the celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric plexi all have ganglia named after them?
Most visceral organs are innervated by (sympathetic / parasympathetic / both)?
What do you call the interplay between sympathetic and parasympathetic input in a given organ?
Hypothalamus increases (sympathetic / parasympathetic) and decreases (sympathetic / parasympathetic)?
Most blood vessels
Arector pili muscles
The above are structures that receive only ________ innervation?
Which kind (or both) of innervation does the reproductive system get?
Which type of ANS innervation is involved with erection?
Which type of ANS innervation is involved in ejaculation?
All ANS PREganglionic neurons release what?
All PARAsympathetic post-ganglionic neurons release what?
Sympathetic postganglionic neurons to sweat glands release what?
What receptor is Present on cell bodies and dendrites of both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons?
What receptor is present on chromaffin cells?
What receptor is on the motor end plate of muscles?
When nicotinic receptors bing ACh it is always ______?
What receptor is Present on plasma receptors of all effector cells?
What type of receptor is present on many sweat glands?
Muscarinic receptors binding ACh can either depolarize or ________ and thus the effect can be ______ or inhibitory
Why are the effects of ACh brief?
due to acetylcholinesterase
What neurotransmitter is released by sympathetic post-ganglionic neurons?
If norepinephrine binds to an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor the effect is ________?
If norepinephrine binds to an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor the effect is _______?
If norepi. binds to a beta-3 receptor on brown fat it results in _______?
Effector cells tend to have (either / both) alpha and beta receptors?
Do some visceral organs have both alpha and beta receptors?
Does norepi. stimulate alpha or beta receptors more strongly?
Does epinephrine stimulate alpha or beta receptor more?
no. both equally
Norepi effects last longer than ACh because it stays in the _______ longer?
What kind of receptors are Found on smooth muscle in blood vessels to salivary glands, skin, mucosal membranes, kidneys and abdominal viscera?
What receptors cause vasoconstriction?
What receptors are found in the radial muscles of the eye and control pupil dilation?
What receptors are Found in sphincter muscles of stomach and bladder and cause them to constrict?
What receptors cause salivary glands to secrete?
What receptors stimulate sweat glands to sweat?
What receptors are Found on smooth muscle in some blood vessels and inhibit contraction (thus causing vasodilation)?
What receptors on the pancreatic islets inhibit insulin secretion?
What receptors on pancreatic acinar cells inhibit the production of digestive enzymes?
What receptors stimulate aggregation of platelets?
What receptor is found in cardiac muscle cells and are excitatory there?
What receptor is found in juxtaglomerular cells of kidney?
What does beta 1 activity at the juxtaglomerular cells do?
causes them to release renin
What receptor in the posterior pituitary causes the gland to release ADH?
What receptor is found and adipose and stimulates breakdown?
What receptor is Found on smooth muscle in walls of airways?
What receptor causes Inhibition and thus relaxation of smooth muscle and dilation of airways?
What receptor is found in blood vessels to heart, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver and causes inhibition (thus causing vasodilation)?
What receptors are found in the ciliary muscles of the eye and causes them to relax?
What receptors cause glycogenolysis in the liver?
What is the name for the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation?
What regulates autonomic tone?
The hypothalamus receives input from _____ sensory paths?
Can both ANS divisions be regulated simultaneously?
Each ANS division affects a given organ differently because they release different __________ and the organs have different ________?
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