54 terms

Fundamentals - Chapter 6

health promotion
help clients maintain and enhance their present levels of health, motivate people to act positively
passive strategies of health promotion
individuals gaining from the activities of others without acting themselves
active strategies of health promotion
individuals are motivated to adopt specific health programs
teaches people how to care for themselves in a healthy way, such as physical awareness, stress management, and self-responsibility
illness prevention
protect clients from actual or potential threats to health
a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity; a state of being that people define in relation to their own values, personality, and lifestyle
positive health behavior
immunizations, proper sleep patterns, adequate exercise, and nutrition
negative health behavior
smoking, drug or alcohol abuse, poor diet, and refusal to take medications
health beliefs
a person's ideas, convictions, and attitudes about health and illness that influence their health behavior
health care system challenges
rising costs, increased access to services, growing population, improved quality outcomes, threats of bioterrorism
a state in which a person's physical, emotional, intellectual, social, developmental, or spiritual functioning is diminished or impaired
acute illness
short duration and severe
chronic illness
persists longer than 6 months
illness behavior
involves how people monitor their bodies, define and interpret their symptoms, take remedial actions, and use the healthcare system
internal variables acting on illness
perception of illness and nature of illness
external variables acting on illness
visibility of symptoms, social group, cultural background, economics, and accessibility to health care
impact of illness
on the client and family: behavioral and emotional changes, impact on body image, impact on self-concept, impact on family roles, impact on family dynamics
health belief model
addresses relationship between a person's beliefs and behaviors; three components: the individual's perception of susceptibility, individual's perception of seriousness, and the liklihood a person will take preventive action
health promotion model
describes the multidimensional nature of persons as they interact within their environment to pursue health, focusing on three areas: individual characteristics and experiences, behavior-specific knowledge and affect, and behavioral outcomes
basic human needs model
a hierarchy of elements that are necessary for survival and health, beginning with physiological needs, safety and security needs, love and belonging needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization needs
holistic health model
attempts to create conditions that promote optimal health by considering the client as the ultimate expert regarding their own health
risk factors
variables that increase the vulnerability of an individual or group to an illness
genetic and physiological risk factors
physical risk factors that involve the physical functioning of the body, such a being pregnant or overweight; and genetic predisposition to a specific illness
age risk factors
increases and decreses susceptibility to certain illnesses
environment risk factors
where we live and the condition of that area (water, air, and soil) determine how we live, what we eat, the disease agents we are exposed to, our state of health, and our ability to adapt
lifestyle risk factors
activities, habits, or practices that have a positive or negative impact on health
primary level of prevention
true prevention that lowers the chances that a disease will develop, given to healthy people (immunizations, education, physical activities)
secondary level of prevention
focuses on those who have a disease or are AT RISK to develop a disease, in an attempt to gain prompt intervention
tertiary level of prevention
occurs when a defect or disability is permanent or irreversible, includes minimizing the effects of the disease or disability by interventions directed at preventing complications and deterioration
preventive health care setting
outpatient services for screening
primary health care setting
individual health care and wellness education
secondary and tertiary health care setting
acute care, hospital, disease management
restorative health care setting
regain function
continuing health care setting
long term - disibility or terminal
goals of Healthy People 2010
increase quality and years of life and to eliminate health disparities
focus areas of Healthy People 2010
promoting health behaviors, promoting healthy and safe communities, improving systems for personal and public health, and preventing and reducing diseases and disorders
no intention to change a health behavior
considering a change a health behavior within the next 6 months
making small changes to a health behavior
actively engaging in strategies to change change a health behavior
maintaining a changed health behavior
impact on emotional changes
reactions depend on the nature of the illness, the client's attitude toward it, the reaction of others to it, and the variables of illness behavior
impact on body image
client and family reaction depends on the type of changes, their adaptive capacity, the rate at which the changes takes place, and the support services available
impact on self-concept
mental self image of strengths and weaknesses that depends on body image and roles
impact on family roles
role reversals are popular, resulting in stress, conflicting responsibilities, or conflict over decision making
impact on family dynamics
way in which families function, make devisions, and provide support changes
developmental state
must consider the client's level of growth and development when planning care
intellectual background
care shaped by person's knowledge, lack of knowledge, or incorrect knowledge about body functions and illness, educational background, and past experiences
perception of functioning
the way a client perceives their level of functioning
emotional factors
a client's degree of stress, depression, or fear can influence health beliefs and practices
spiritual factors
how a person lives their life, that may impact forms of medical treatment
family practices
the way a client's family uses health care services affects their health practices
socioeconomic factors
increase the risk for illness and influence the way a person defines and reacts to illness
cultural background
influences beliefs, values, and customs, and influences the approach to the health care system, personal health practices, and the nurse-client relationship