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sacred texts in the Hindu religion, they are a set of four collections of hymns and religious ceremonies transmitted by memory through the centuries by Aryan priests


a single spiritual power that Hindus believe lives in everything


The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths.

Caste System

a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity


belief that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after death


(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation


in Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste

Siddhartha Gautama

founder of Buddhism

Four Noble Truths

The central teachings of Buddhism; to live is to suffer; suffering is caused by desire; the cessation of suffering can be achieved; the solution is the Noble Eightfold Path.

Eightfold Path

In Buddhism, the basic rules of behavior and belief leading to an end of suffering


the lasting peace that Buddhists seek by giving up selfish desires

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