1. Necessary and Proper (not self-executing).
2. Taxing Power - Must bear some reasonable relation to revenue production OR if Congress has power to regulate activity taxed.
3. Spending Power - any public purpose ("provide for common defense and general welfare"). LIMITED by Bill of Rights. Congress may not LEGISLATE for general welfare.
4. Commerce Power.
5. War and Related Powers - power to declare war, raise and support armies, provide for and maintain navy.
6. Investigatory Power - implied. Must be expressly/impliedly authorized by congressional house. Limited to matters on which it can legislate.
7. Property Power - No express limitation on power to dispose of property, federal takings (eminent domain) must effectuate enumerated power.
8. NO FEDERAL POLICE POWER, except over D.C., federal lands, military bases, Indian reservations.
9. Bankruptcy Power (nonexclusive)
10. Postal Power - Exclusive, can classify and place reasonable restrictions on mail use.
11. Power over citizenship - uniform rules on naturalization. Aliens have no right to enter, and can be denied entry. BUT resident aliens entitled to notice & hearing before deportation. Exclusive power over naturalization, but cannot strip citizenship w/o consent.
12. Admiralty Power. Can give maritime to state jx.
13. Power to coin money and fix weights/measures.
14. Patent/Copyright Power.