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41 terms

Cell Vocab etc

cell vocab/functions etc...
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Cell Theory
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells
5 Characteristics of a Living Organism
adaptation/ to expel waste/death/ reproduction/ produce energy
Eukaryotic Cells
contain a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes
Prokaryotic Cells
cells without a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles
Diffusion
the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
Concentration
the amount of particles in a given space
Osmosis
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Unicellular Organisms
organisms made of only one cell
6 Nutrient Groups
water/ minerals/ proteins/ vitamins/ carbohydrates/ fats
Permeable Membrane
a cell membrane, which allows all particles to enter and leave the cell.
Selectively permeable Membrane
a membrane that keeps out some particles but allows others to pass through
Impermeable Membrane
a membrane that does not allow any particles to pass through
Cells have __________ membrane
a selectively permeable membrane
Levels of Organization
cells/ tissues/ muscles/ organs/ organ systems
Allergens
an antigen that can cause an allergy
Vaccines
dead or weakened pathogens that are injected into the body to cause the production of antibodies that will prevent disease
Diff. between antigens and antibodies
antigens cause the disease and antibodies cure it
Antigens
foreign substances that trigger the attack of antibodies in the immune system
Antibodies
substances produced by the body to prevent disease and fight off antigens
Pathogens
disease producing unicellular organisms
Body System Hierarchy
chemical level/ cellular level/ tissue level/ organ level/ system level/ organism level
Organelle
a cell structure in which functions are carried out to ensure the cells survival
Cytoplasm
jelly-like substance within the cell
Nucleus
the organelle that controls the cell
DNA
carries the heredity material that is passed on from generation to generation
Mitochondria
energy producers of the cell (carry out cellular respiration)
Cellular Respiration
occurs when the chemical energy we take in through the food we eat is changed into energy that cells use to carry out their activities
Metabolism
total of all chemical reactions that take place in our cells
Proteins
essential to all life
building blocks for a variety of structures in the cell
Ribosomes
assemble proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum
membrane covered channels
Golgi Body
sorts proteins and packs them into membrane wrapped structures (vesticles)
Vesticles
smaller than vacuoles
carry proteins in/out of the cell
Vacuole
temporary storage compartments
Lysosme
contains digestive chemicals that break down food particles/ cell wastes/ worn-out cell parts
Cell Wall
rigid structure surrounding the cell membrane
plants only
Chloroplasts
trap sun energy and changes it into chemical energy
plants only
Photosynthesis
the chemical reaction that takes place when CO2 and water react to the presence of sunlight and creat glucose (food) and O2
Bacteria
prokaryotic cells
Viruses
tiny, non-living particles
reproduce only when in a host cell
Equilibrium
equal number of particles on both sides of the membrane