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Introduction to Higher Biology. It will be updated regularly, as I get more into the course throughout this term up until the summer holidays.


Contains DNA packed into chromosomes and controls all cell activities.


Involved in the production of rRNA and mRNA during protein synthesis.


This is the main site of the chemical activity and contains many specialized organelles.


The main site of respiration and energy release.


Bodies involved in protein synthesis.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Controls the transport of proteins.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

Controls the transport of lipids.

Golgi Apparatus/Body

Involved in the packing of protein for secretion.


Contains powerful digestive enzymes and breakdown 'worn out' organelles or food particles engulfed by the cell.

Cell Membrane

Controls the movement of molecules into and out of the cell.

Cell Walls with Cellulose

Gives plants their shape and adds mechanical strength.


Connections linking the cells within a plant.

Large Permanent Vacuole

A fluid-filled organelle involved in osmoregulation and support.


Site of photosynthetic light and dark reactions.

Smooth Muscle Cells

Specialised Structural Features- Spindle-shaped and form sheets.

Functional Advantage of Structure- Lets them contract and relax to perform peristalsis.

Squamous Epithelial Cells

Specialised Structural Features- Flat irregular shape.

Functional Advantage of Structure- Lets them form a loose covering for protection.

Columnar Epithelial Cells

Specialised Structural Features- Tall, wide and able to make squamous cells.

Functional Advantage of Structure- Provide a foundation on which squamous cells are built and protects lower layers.

Red Blood Cells

Specialised Structural Features- They are small, biconcave discs which have no nucleus, provide a large surface area and are packed with haemoglobin.

Functional Advantage of Structure- Enables lots of oxygen to diffuse into the cell and be carried by the haemoglobin.

White Blood Cells (Phagocytes)

Specialised Structural Features- They can change shape and contain lysosomes which have powerful digestive enzymes.

Functional Advantage of Structure- Engulf and destroys microbes.

White Blood Cells (Lymphocytes)

Specialised Structural Features- They produce anti-bodies and have receptors on their membrane.

Functional Advantage of Structure- Detects and inactivates microbes.

Goblet Cells (Epithelial)

Specialised Structural Features- Cup-shaped and produce mucus.

Functional Advantage of Structure- Mucus traps dust and germs.

Ciliated Cells (Epithelial)

Specialised Structural Features- Ciliated on their outer membrane.

Functional Advantage of Structure- Cilia move mucus to up to the back of the throat.

Nerve Cells

Specialised Structural Features- Long Insulated fibres.

Functional Advantage of Structure- They are able to carry electrical impulses.

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