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23 terms

Introduction to Higher Biology

Introduction to Higher Biology. It will be updated regularly, as I get more into the course throughout this term up until the summer holidays.
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Nucleus
Contains DNA packed into chromosomes and controls all cell activities.
Nucleolus
Involved in the production of rRNA and mRNA during protein synthesis.
Cytoplasm
This is the main site of the chemical activity and contains many specialized organelles.
Mitochondria
The main site of respiration and energy release.
Ribosomes
Bodies involved in protein synthesis.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Controls the transport of proteins.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Controls the transport of lipids.
Golgi Apparatus/Body
Involved in the packing of protein for secretion.
Lysosomes
Contains powerful digestive enzymes and breakdown 'worn out' organelles or food particles engulfed by the cell.
Cell Membrane
Controls the movement of molecules into and out of the cell.
Cell Walls with Cellulose
Gives plants their shape and adds mechanical strength.
Channels
Connections linking the cells within a plant.
Large Permanent Vacuole
A fluid-filled organelle involved in osmoregulation and support.
Chloroplasts
Site of photosynthetic light and dark reactions.
Smooth Muscle Cells
Specialised Structural Features- Spindle-shaped and form sheets.

Functional Advantage of Structure- Lets them contract and relax to perform peristalsis.
Squamous Epithelial Cells
Specialised Structural Features- Flat irregular shape.

Functional Advantage of Structure- Lets them form a loose covering for protection.
Columnar Epithelial Cells
Specialised Structural Features- Tall, wide and able to make squamous cells.

Functional Advantage of Structure- Provide a foundation on which squamous cells are built and protects lower layers.
Red Blood Cells
Specialised Structural Features- They are small, biconcave discs which have no nucleus, provide a large surface area and are packed with haemoglobin.

Functional Advantage of Structure- Enables lots of oxygen to diffuse into the cell and be carried by the haemoglobin.
White Blood Cells (Phagocytes)
Specialised Structural Features- They can change shape and contain lysosomes which have powerful digestive enzymes.

Functional Advantage of Structure- Engulf and destroys microbes.
White Blood Cells (Lymphocytes)
Specialised Structural Features- They produce anti-bodies and have receptors on their membrane.

Functional Advantage of Structure- Detects and inactivates microbes.
Goblet Cells (Epithelial)
Specialised Structural Features- Cup-shaped and produce mucus.

Functional Advantage of Structure- Mucus traps dust and germs.
Ciliated Cells (Epithelial)
Specialised Structural Features- Ciliated on their outer membrane.

Functional Advantage of Structure- Cilia move mucus to up to the back of the throat.
Nerve Cells
Specialised Structural Features- Long Insulated fibres.

Functional Advantage of Structure- They are able to carry electrical impulses.