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38 terms

bcp final

vocabulary.
STUDY
PLAY
evolution
a change in the genetic makeup of population over time
acquired characteristic
trait acquired during organisms lifetime
inherited characteristic
characteristic that was passed down from parent
natural selection
unequal reproductive success of organism with or without favorable traits
artificial selection
when humans act as the selective pressure
adaption
traits which helps an organism survive/reproduce
genetic drift
The gradual changes in gene frequencies in a population due to random events
gene flow
new alleles flow in or out of a population
bottleneck effect
sudden change in environment that can reduce size of population
founder effect
few individuals are isolated from a bigger population
speciation
when members of a population can no longer reproduce with the original species
vestigial structure
structures that have no use not, but did for ancestors
analogous structure
similar functions and different structures
homologous structure
similar structures with varied structures
paleontology
study of fossils
embryology
study of embryos
biogeography
study of where organism lived
molecular genetics
comparing DNA of similar organisms
morphology
study of forms and structures of organism
dominant
the trait that overpowers another trait (A)
recessive
the trait that resides under the dominant trait (gets covered-a)
DNA
deoxiriboneucleic acid- instructions for life
RNA
riboneucleic acid- type of nucleic acid (information)
mRNA
messenger RNA, takes message from DNA out to cell)
tRNA
most abundant RNA which combines with protein to form structure of ribosomes; transfer RNA carries amino acids
gene
discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of nucleotide sequencing DNA
allele
alternative versions of a gene that produces distinguished effects
genotype
the genetic makeup of set of alleles for an organism
homozygous
a set of the same alleles for an organism (AA, aa)
heterozygous
a set of alleles that are different (Aa)
transcription
synthesis of RNA template
translation
synthesis of protein using genetic information encoded on RNA
sex chromosome
23rd pair of chromosomes that determine gender and other sex related traits (XX, XY)
autosome
any chromosome other than XX, XY
codon
3 nucleotide sequence of DNA or RNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal
anti-codon
specialized base triplet at one end of tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complimentary codon or mRNA molecule
protein
3 dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids
ribosome
cell organelle constructed in the nucleus, functions as the fire of protein synthesis in cytoplasm