How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

97 terms

Mental Health-NBCOT

occupational therapy mental health content questions
STUDY
PLAY
Sign/Symptoms of Mental Health Disorders
Consciousness, Attention, Emotion, Motor, Thinking, Speech, Perception, Memory
Consciousness
State of Awareness
Disturbances in Consciousness
Disorientation, Delirium, Confusion, Sundowning
Disorientation
Disturbance of person, place, time or situation
Delirium
Disoriented reaction w/ restlessness and confusion
Confusion
Inappropriate reactions to environmental stimuli
Attention
ability to remain focused/concentrate
Disturbances in Attention
Distractibility, Selective Inattention, Hyperviligence, Trance
Distractibility
Inability to concentrate due to inability to block out irrelevant stimuli
Selective Inattention
Blocking out what creates anxiety
Hyperviligence
Excessive alertness that guards against danger
Trance
Sleeplike state, followed by amnesia
Emotion
a feeling state associated w/ affect and mood; psychological and physical components
Affect
Observable component of emotion
Disturbances in Affect/Emotion
Appropriate, Inappropriate, Blunt, Restricted, Flat, Labile
Appropriate Affect
Consistent with idea, thought and speech
Inappropriate Affect
Inconsistent with idea, thought and speech
Blunt Affect
Severe lack of affect
Restricted Affect
Reduced affect (less than blunt)
Flat Affect
Absence of affect
Labile Affect
Rapid changes in affect
Mood
Pervasive and sustained emotion, manifested by thoughts and actions
Disturbances in Mood
Anxiety, Free Floating Anxiety, Fear
Anxiety
Apprehension/worry with anticipation of future danger
Free Floating Anxiety
Pervasive anxiety with no specific focus
Fear
Anxiety associated with real danger
Physiological disturbances with Mood...
...are often autonomic
Motor Behavior
Behavior/motor expression of impulses, drives, wishes, motivation, cravings
Disturbances in Motor Behavior
Echopraxia, Catatonia, Sterotypy, Psychomotor agitation, Hyperactivity, Hypoactivity, Aggression, Acting out, Akathisia, Ataxia
Echopraxia
Meaningless imitation of another persons movements
Catatonia
Immobility or rigidity
Stereotypy
Repetition of fixed patterns of movement/speech (ex. echolalia)
Psychomotor agitation
Excessive activity (could be cognitive); usually none productive and in response to inner tension
Hyperactivity
Restless, aggressive or destructive activity
Hypoactivity
Decreased or slow motor/cognitive activity
Akathisia
State of restlessness with an urgent need for movement; often medication side effect
Ataxia
Irregularity/failure of muscle coordination upon movement
Thinking
Goal directed reasoned flow of ideas/associations; when thinking follows a logical sequence it is considered normal
Disturbances in Thinking (Form)
Circumstantiality, Tangentiality, Perseveration, Flight of Ideas, Thought Blocking
Circumstantiality
Speech that is delayed in reaching the point; contains excessive/irrelevant details
Tangentiality
Abrupt change of focus to loosely associated topic
Perseveration
Persistent focus on a previous topic/behavior after a new topic/behavior is introduced
Flight of Ideas
Rapid shift in thoughts from one idea to another
Thought Blocking
Interruption of a thought process before it is carried out to completion
Disturbances in Thinking (Content)
Delusions, Compulsions, Obsessions, Phobias, Hypochondria, Poverty of Content
Delusions
False beliefs about external reality without appropriate stimulus
Compulsions
Need to act out specific impulses to relieve associated anxiety
Obsessions
Persistent thought or feeling that cannot be eliminated by logical thought
Speech
Expression of ideas, thoughts, feelings through language
Disturbances in Speech
Pressured speech, Poverty of speech, Nonspontaneous speech, Stuttering, Perseveration
Pressured Speech
Rapid/increased in amount
Poverty of Speech
Limited in amount/content
Nonspontaneous Speech
Responses given only when the person is spoken to directly
Stuttering
Repetition/prolongation of sounds/syllables
Perseveration
Continued repetition of word/phrase
Disturbances in Language Output
Expressive aphasia, Receptive aphasia, Nominal aphasia, Global aphasia
Expressive Aphasia
Cannot say what the individual knows they want to say
Receptive Aphasia
Cannot comprehend what is said
Nominal Aphasia
Inability to name objects
Global Aphasia
Involves all forms of aphasia
Perception
Process of interpreting sensory information received from the environment
Disturbances in Perception
Hallucinations, Illusions
Hallucinations
False sensory perceptions; not in response to an external stimuli
Illusions
Misperceptions/misinterpretations of real sensory events
Disturbances Associated with a Cognitive Disorder
Agnosia, Astereognosis, Visual Agnosia, Apraxia, Adiadochokinesia
Agnosia
Inability to understand/interpret significance of sensory input
Astereognosis
Inability to identify objects through touch
Visual Agnosia
Inability to recognize people and objects
Apraxia
Inability to carry out specific motor task in the absence of sensory or motor impairment
Adiadochokinesia
Inability to perform rapidly alternating movements
Disturbances Associated with Conversion/Dissociative Phenomena
In response to repressed material; involves physical symptoms not under voluntary control

Depersonalization, Derealization, Fugue, Dissociative Identity Disorder, Dissociation
Depersonalization
Subjective sense of being unreal or inanimate
Derealization
Subjective sense that the environment is unreal
Fugue
Serious depersonalization, involves travel/relocation, person takes on a new identity with amnesia of old identity
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Involves the appearance that the person has developed 2 or more distinct personalities
Dissociation
Separation of a group of mental or behavioral processes from the rest of the person's psychic activity; may involve separating an idea from its emotional tone
Memory
Ability to store/retrieve information from the past
Levels of Memory
Immediate: ability to recall material within sec or min
Recent: ability to recall material from the past few days
Remote: ability to recall events of distant past
Disturbances of Memory
Amnesia: inability to recall past experiences or personal identity; organic or emotional cause
Retrograde Amnesia: inability to remember events that occurred PRIOR to the event
DSM-IV-TR Axes
Axis 1: clinical disorders
Axis 2: personality disorders and MR
Axis 3: general medical conditions
Axis 4: psychosocial and environmental problems
Axis 5: global assessment of functioning
DSM-IV-TR Diagnosis
Made when criteria is met:
a) behavior is not caused by other medical conditions, substance abuse, or medication
b) symptoms cause significant distress and impairment in function
c) symptoms cannot be better accounted for by another diagnosis
Global Assessment of Function (GAF)
Considers psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health. DOES NOT include impairment in functioning due to physical/environmental limitations
Global Assessment of Function Scale
100-91 Superior
90-81 Absent, Minimal
80-71 Transient, expected reactions
70-61 Mild
60-51 Moderate
50-41 Serious
40-31 Impairment in reality testing or communication
30-21 Behavior influenced by delusion or hallucination or serious impairment in communication/judgement
20-11 Some danger to self/others
10-1 Persistent danger to self/others
0 Inadequate information
Schizophrenia + Symptoms
Delusions, Hallucinations, Disorganized Speech, Grossly Disorganized or Catatonic Behavior
Schizophrenia - Symptoms
Restricted Emotion, Decreased Thought and Speech, Lack of Motivation and Initiative, Inability to Relate to Others
Subtypes of Schizophrenia
Paranoid, Disorganized, Catatonic, Undifferentitated, Residual
Paranoid Schizophrenia
Preoccupation with 1 or more delusions of persecution or grandeur
Auditory hallucinations frequent
Exhibit fewer negative symptoms
Disorganized Schizophrenia
Distinguished by marked regression; demonstrate primitive, disinhibiting and disorganized behavior
Catatonic Schizophrenia
Severe disturbances in motor behavior involving stupor, negativism, rigidity, excitement or posturing
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
Used for those who do not clearly fit into other categories
Residual Schizophrenia
Continued evidence of schizophrenic behavior in the absence of a complete set of diagnostic criteria
Schizopreniform Disorder
Individual meets requirements for schizophrenia with an episode that lasts for more than 1 month but less than 6 months
Schizoaffective Disorder
Uninterrupted period of illness which is characterized by either a major depressive, manic or mixed episode concurrent with symptoms that meet Criteron A for schizophrenia (+symptoms)
Delusional Disorder
Predominant symptoms are non-bizarre delusions with the absence of other Criterion A symptoms (+symptoms)
Brief Psychotic Disorder
At least 1 day, but less than 1 month of Criterion A symptoms (+symptoms) which result from severe psychological stress
Antipsychotic Medication Side Effects
Dry mouth, Blurry vision, Photosensitivity, Orthostatic Hypertension, Parkinsonism, Dsytonias, Akathisias, Tardive Dyskinesia, Cardiac symptoms
Neuroleptic Malignent Syndrome
Autonomic emergency; increase in BP, tachycardia, sweating, confusion, coma