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46 terms

Antiinfectives Chapter 25 Study Guide

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antibiotic
chemical agents produced by organisms used to treat infections
antimicrobial
chemical agents produced by scientists to prevent growth or to kill microorganisms
bacteria
unicellular organisms
bactericidal
agent that kills bacteria
bacteriostatic
Drugs that do not kill bacteria, but instead slow their growth.
ESBLs
extended spectrum βlactamases - resistance to 3rd gencephalosporins and monobactam but do not affect 2nd gen or carbapenems
gram-negative bacteria
bacteria that are UNABLE to keep crystal violet stain when prepared according to gram-stain procedures
gram-positive bacteria
bacteria that are ABLE to keep crystal violet stain when prepared according to gram-stain procedures
antibiotic spectrum
a variety of microbes that a particular antibiotic can treat
inhibit
to stop or hold back in order to prevent a reaction from taking place
morphology
appearance of an organism, including it's shape, size, structure, and gram-staining characteristics
MRSA
methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
normal flora
microorganisms that live on or within the body without causing disease, but rather may aid the host organism
nosocomial infection
hospital acquired infection
parasites
organisms that require a host for nourishment and reproduction
pneumonia
inflammation of the lung caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or chemical irritants
PRSP
penicillin-resistant streptococcus pneumoniae
synthesis
the formation of chemical components in the body that comprise cell contents or containers
symbiotic
a close working relationship between two species
viruses
organisms that cannot replicate without the necessary components from a host
VRE
vancomycin-resistant enterococcus
cold chain
a set of safe handling practices that ensure vaccines and immunologicals requiring refrigeration are maintained at a required temperature
conjugate vaccine
links antigens or toxoids to polysaccharide or sugar molecules that certain bacteria use as a protective device to disguise themselves
live, attenuated vaccine
is a living, but weakened version of the disease
immunosuppressants
drugs that inhibit cell proliferation
immunization
is a deliberate, artificial exposure to disease to produce acquired immunity
toxoid vaccine
a vaccine that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies to a specific toxin that causes illness
vaccine
a substance that prevents disease by taking advantage of your body's ability to make antibodies and release "killer" cells to a disease
Cephalosporin Agents 1st Generation
Cefazolin (Ancef), Cephradine (Velosef), Cephalexin (Keflex), Cefadroxil (Duricef)
Cephalosporin Agents 2nd Generation
Cefuroxime (Ceftin), Cefotetan (Cefotan), Cefprozil (Cefzil), Cefaclor (Ceclor)
Cephalosporin Agents 3rd Generation
Cefoperazone (Cefobid), Cefixime (Suprax), Cefpodoxime (Vantin)
Cephalosporin Agents 4th Generation
Cefepime (Maxipime)
Aminoglycosides
amikacin (Amikin), gentamicin (Garamicin), tobramycin (Nebcin, Tobi)
Antiprotozoan Agents
Chloroquine (Aralen), Primaquine, Metronidazole (Flagyl),
Pyrimethamine (Daraprim), praziquantel (Biltricide), mefloquine (Lariam), mebendazole (vermox), iodoquinol (Yodoxin)
Antituberculin Agents
isoniazid (INH), rifampin (Rifadin), cycloserone (Seromycin)
Macrolides
Erythromycin (Erythrocin), Clarithromycin (Biaxin),
Azithromycin (Zithromax).
CA-MRSA
community-associated MRSA infection
GNRB
Gram-Negative Resistant Bacilli (bacteria)
HA-MRSA
Hospital-associated MRSA infection
MDR-GNB
Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli (bacteria)
MDRO
Multidrug-resistant organism
MDRSP
multidrug-resistant streptococcus pneumoniae
MSSA
Methicillin Susceptible Staph Aureus
PRSP
penicillin-resistant streptococcus pneumoniae
VISA
Vancomycin-intermediate staphylococcus aureus
VRSA
Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus