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Nunez chapter 1
Terms in this set (25)
Is culture learned?
On what does culture have an influence?
The way we think, feel and behave
What does culture shape?
Our percepcion and it influeces our judgement of others.
According to the Interculturalist Edgar Schein culture consists of layers, like an onion. What are they called?
Layers of culture (from the outside in):
1. Artefacts of Culture
2. Norms and Values
3. Basic Assumptions
Explain "Artefacts of Culture".
Artefacts are the first things you notice when entering a new country. They are easy to perceive, and they're nice to know, but intercultural communication is not going to be about artefacts.
Explain "Norms and Values".
Norms and values are written and unwritten standards of correct, desired behaviour. Norms and values are not as visible as artefacts. It takes some time to notice, let alone learn them. But with the necessary effort and observation, they can be learned.
Explain "Basic Assumptions".
Abstract and invisible. We learn them very young (<7yr). Unaware of influence.
Give a few examples of artefacts of culture.
For example, first time visiting the Netherlands:
- the bicycle lanes
- lare windows and open curtains
- the tall people and how they dress
First time entering a new company:
- company logo
- company house-style
- whether or not employees wear ties
What are values?
Values express what we think is good or right
Give a few examples of norms and values.
- arrive in class a few minutes early / exactly on time / be a few minutes late
- being 3 minutes late.. acceptable?
- 10 minutes late.. acceptable or not?
Values (express what we think is good or right):
- Is it good to stand up for an elderly person on a crowded bus?
- Is it right to send a card or make a phone call to a classmate who is ill?
Give a few examples of a basic assumption.
Intercultural communication is about bringing basic assumptions of our own culture to our awareness and to recognise the basic assumptions of other cultures. Why is this so important?
- to communicate creatively and more effectively with people from other cultures
- to use cultural diversity at work as a source of inspiration and growth
- to achieve cultural synergy
Definition of culture (1) Klaas Bruin
Culture is the sum total of views, notions, symbols, knowledge, values, standards, customs,
and practices that people within a society acquire and convey. To some extent, culture
determines how people look at the world and the manner in which they interpret things and
act upon them.
Definition of culture (2) Geert Hofstede
Culture is the collective programming of the mind, which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another (1991).
Definition of culture (3) Mijnd Huijser
A group's set of shared norms and values expressed in the behaviour of the group's members. (2006)
Defintion of culture ( 4) Fons Tromenaars
Culture is the way in which a group of people solve problems. (1998)
Definition of culture (5) Edgar Schein
A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaption and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems (2004)
How do we programme (learn) culture?
Throught upbringing, socialization, norms and values, and perception.
Upbringing: learn to shake someone's hand
Socialization: learn how firm the handshake should be, how much eye contact is wanted etc.
Norms and values: giving an old person your seat in the bus, which makes you feel good.
Perception: learn by perceiving others.
Three levels of programming
1. Individual: you can always choose to do something else, regardless of their cultural programming or what society thinks.
2. Cultural: eating with knife and fork and a plate.
3. Human nature: eating with bare hands because you're hungry.
What does collective indicate?
Collective indicates the group or subgroups we belong to. It does not mean that the whole country is one big group -> subgroups with different cultures
Examples of subgroups
- Urban or rural
What is communication?
Communication is the exchange of meaning
Communicatiemodel pagina 19 (kunnen tekenen)
What is cultural noise?
That cultural programming can distort the message. Example: volume for speaking might be too loud or the appropriate amount of eye contact in one culture might be too much for another.
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