335 terms

Vet med - Farm animal

Farm animal
Normal environment (where animal is normally kept)
Hygiene, ventilation,
feed, water, feces, urine
size, consistency (age, stage of production)
Ageing by dentition
Cattle; I1 1.5-2 yrs, I2 2.5-3 yrs, I3 3-3.5 yrs, (I)4 3.5-4.5 yrs
Sheep; I1 1 yr, I2 1.5 yrs, I3 2.25 yrs, (I)4 3-3.5 yrs
other animals affected? - relationship (age, pen, etc)
were they diagnosed & with what.
were they treated - with what & how did they respond
Previous history of disease/problems on the farm/in the area
implications for rest of herd
treatment (or cull) - management, withdrawal periods, cost
ave 25-30% per year
reasons - infertility, mastitis, lameness, yield
want to maximize voluntary culling (enable selection)
Reproduction - basics
puberty 10-12 months, min 340 kg (380 kg better)
1st breeding 18-21 months, 350-380 kg
gestation 280 days
re-breed 2-3 months later
lactation 10 months, dry period 2 months
Reproduction - Targets
Calving interval - 370 days (ave 410)
Days to 1st service - 60 days (ave 83)
Calving to conception interval - 85 days (ave 128)
serves per conception - 1.8 (ave 2.5)
Pregnancy rate > 54% (dairy 42%, beef > 50%)
Culling for failure to conceive < 7% (ave 18%)
Reproduction - Rectal palpation
economy of effort, don't palpate against strong contractions
cervix, uterine body, horns, ovaries, middle uterine As, vagina
PD - amniotic vesicle, placentomes (≥ 3 months), fetus, membrane slip, fremitus in middle uterine As (5 months)
Palpate entire length both horns before diagnosing not pregnant
Trans-rectal ultrasound
ovaries - CL
uterus - PD (heart beat), endometritis, pyometra, mucometra (anechoic fluid)
Calving to 1st estrus
influenced by anestrus, estrus expression, heat detection
Calving to 1st service influenced by VWP & time to 1st estrus
(estrus requires P4 priming, can be simulated with a CIDR)
prolonged with - cesarean, lameness, endometritis, RFM,
dystocia, mastitis, milk fever, low BCS
Post-partum return to estrus
uterine involution takes 3 wks, endometrial restoration - 6 wks
recovery of LH pulsatility depends on severity of negative energy balance & BCS loss (dairy), suckling & maternal bond (beef)
Heat detection
observe 3-5x/day - standing to be mounted, bulling string
aids - synchronization, teaser, tail painting, k-mar heat detector, pedometers
egg has short lifespan (4-6 hrs),
accurate heat detection is vital
Am/Pm or 12hr rule - inseminate cow 12 hrs after heat is detected/ if detected in morning inseminate in evening & vice versa
Failure to conceive
- Failure to detect estrus - cows return to estrus in 36-48 days - Poor timing or insemination technique
Female infertility
Specific problems - failure to breed, returns to service, abortion
Causes; non-detected estrus, metritis & endometritis, cystic ovarian disease, dystocia, RFM, cesarean
-> decreased annual milk yield, fewer calves/yr, more services
Failure to submit/no estrus
- no signs of estrus & no CL
Ddx - nutritional anestrus (BCS < 2.5, BCS loss ≥ 1),
calving to service interval too short,
just ovulated 1st time (sm & med follicles present),
cystic ovarian disease,
developmental abnormalities in heifers (free martins)
Failure to submit/no estrus 2
- no signs of estrus, CL on palpation
Ddx - non-detected estrus, 1st ovulation postpartum/pubertal, stress, suckler/high yield dairy cow, luteinization of dominant follicle, persistent CL (metritis/pyometra)
Failure to submit/irregular estrus
- Irregular expression of estrus, PE - CL
Ddx - inaccurate estrus detection, 1st post-partum/pubertal
ovulation, short luteal phase
- Irregular expression of estrus, no CL
Ddx - cystic ovarian disease
history - few weeks post-partum,
CS - dullness, fever, toxemia, purulent vaginal discharge, cold extremities, collapse
Dx; ultrasound or metrocheck uterine sample
Tx; cephalosporins
Cystic ovarian disease
CS - nymphomania (mounting) or anestrus
fluid filled sac > 25 mm, no functional CL > 10 days
2 types; Follicular - thin wall, -> E2. Luteal - thick wall, -> P4
Tx - 40% self recovery from early presentation (21 days)
Follicular → GnRH, 2nd try - hCG then PMSG
Luteal → PGF2α
Failure to conceive
Ddx - Early embryo death (< 20 days post-fertilization, return to estrus at normal time), failure of fertilization, late embryo mortality (return to estrus late)
Failure of fertilization
Causes - farm bull fertility, timing of AI/insemination technique, cervical/uterine obstructions, genetic abnormalities in oocyte, delayed ovulation
Failure in maternal recognition of pregnancy
Causes - ovulation of persistent dominant follicle, chromosomal abnormalities, impaired CL function,
specific infections (IBR, BVDV, trichomonas, Campylobacter), non-specific endometritis, nutrition, heat stress
Repeat breeder/normal returns to estrus
History - normal returns to estrus, PE - CL + NAD
Individual; Ddx - delayed ovulations, endometritis/vaginitis/cervicitis, obstruction, urovagina
Group; Ddx - management - wrong timing/poor technique of AI, endometritis, specific transmissable infections - bull
Late embryonic loss (20 days - 6 wks)
CS; late return to estrus
Causes - specific infections, endometritis, disease/trauma, nutrition, stress, iatrogenic (palpation or drugs), insemination
Fetal loss (> 6 wks)
CS; Aborted fetus/discharge at next heat
Causes - specific infections (Neospora, Leptospira, Brucella, Trichomonas, Listeria, Chlamydia), endometritis, disease/trauma, nutrition (toxins), stress, iatrogenic, fetal developmental abnormalities
Estrus synchronization - PGF2a
PGF2a - 1 or 2 injections, requires vet, cheap
1 -> estrus 2.5-7 days, requires monitoring
2 (14 days apart in cows, 11 in heifers) -> estrus 3-4 days,
fixed time AI at 48 & 72 hrs
Estrus synchronization - Progestagens
- PRID or CIDR (intravaginal device), doesn't require a vet, more expensive?, better sync
PGF2a day 7/8 & remove day 10 or long term - 12 days
-> estrus 36 hrs, inseminate 48 hrs
Estrus synchronization - GnRH + PGF2a
- costly, good sync
GnRH, PGF day 7, 2nd GnRH day 9
-> inseminate 16 hrs
Induction of estrus/ovulation
Beef - remove calf for 48 hrs on day 30 or restrict suckling, pre-post-partum nutrition
Dairy - pre/post-partum nutrition
- GnRH/hCG, progestagen, progestagen + eCG
Conception rate with natural service
45% (1st service), 90% with 3 services
Male infertility
PE - lameness, systemic disease
genital exam - penis, prepuce, testes, scrotum, epididymis
- inspection, palpation, measure scrotal circumference, US
libido (season, social dominance, mount w/i 15 min)
mating ability
semen evaluation - #s, concentration, motility, morphology
5% (> 50% of animals thought to be infertile are fertile)
Penile problems
orchitis, small/flaccid testicles/poor motility & morphology, testicular trauma, inability to erect the penis
Bulls - STDs
Campylobacter fetus, BHV-1, Leptospira hardjo, BVDV, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Salmonella
Bulls - Penile problems
papillomas - regress within 4 months
rupture of corpus cavernosum, drainage defect
persistent frenulum (surgical repair)
corkskrew/spiral deviation
Bulls - scrotal & testicular problems
orchitis (Brucella, Mycobacterium, A. pyogenes, Nocardia, BHV-3), spermatocele, testicular degeneration (temperature - environmental or pyrexia, infection, trauma), neoplasia
epididymitis, cysts
Rams - STDs
Maedi-visna, OPA/jaagsiekte, Border Disease virus, Salmonella, CLA, OEA
Brucella ovis, Actinobacillus seminis, Toxoplasma, Coxiella burnetti, Campylobacter fetus, Mycoplasma
Rams - Penile problems
pizzle rot (Corynebacterium renale) - ewes with blood on tail
Rams - epididymal problems
epididymitis (Brucella ovis, Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, Histophilus, Corynebacterium), cysts
Sexed semen
75-90% accurate
fertility reduced 10-15%, less choice than regular semen
Pregnancy diagnosis
no return to estrus (21 days)
milk P4 (high 21-24 days)
trans-rectal ultrasound (25-30 days)
rectal palpation (6 weeks - term)
Sheep - reproduction basics
Puberty; ewes 6-9 months, rams 4-6 months
seasonally polyestrous, short day breeders (Oct-Feb)
estrous 16 1/2 days
gestation 5 months
Sheep - prolificacy
breeds - Border leicester, Lleyn, Cambridge, Finnsheep,
genetics - booroola, iverdale (homozygous infertile, →
nutrition/BCS - flushing/rising plain of nutrition,
NB Aberdale don't require flushing, can use grass for finishing
Lower ovulation rate - early in season, primiparous, hill breeds
Sheep - reproduction targets
Conception rate - 75-80% ewes, 99% by 3rd service
Lambing rate - 183 Lowland, 166 Upland, 112 Hill
Lambing % = # lambs born/# ewes put to tup x 100
% weaned/reared = # lambs weaned or reared/#ewes put
to tup x 100
168 Lowland, 150 Upland, 100 Hill
Sheep - reproduction problems
↓ ovulation rate - more singles than usual
→ nutrition, age, stress/weather
↓ conception/pregnancy rate - more barren than usual
→ rams, nutrition, stress/weather, disease
barren ≠ infertile
↑ abortion rate - ↓ lambing rate, normal conception rate
↑ perinatal losses (> 8-10%) - ↓% weaned, normal lambing %
Sheep - rams
Teeth, toes (mobility), tone (BCS 3.5-4 pre-season), testicles (large, firm)
ram: ewe ratio; Hill 1:30, Lowland 1:50, ram lamb 1:20,
synchronized 1:10-15
Sheep - ewes
Teeth, toes (mobility), teats (mastitis), tone (BCS 2.5 hill, 3
upland, 3,5 lowland)
Flushing - lush pasture from 6 weeks pre-mating (avoid
brassicas - kale or forage rape, clover & alfalfa - estrogenic)
Sheep - PD
US 60-90 days, fetal count (single, twin, triplet)
no return to estrus (marking harness on ram, change crayon
color q 2 weeks)
Ballotement from 100 days
Sheep - advancing the breeding season
Ram effect - within 4 weeks of season, isolate from males (>1
mile for > 1 wk), introduce ram -> 50% ovulate within 6 days
Progestagen priming - within 6 weeks of season, sponge or
CIDR, eCG at removal -> estrus within 2-3 days, compact
lambing period
[Melatonin (suffolks), lighting]
Sheep - synchronization of estrus
Progestagen - sponge or CIDR for 14 days, +/- eCG at
removal, ovulation within 2 days, 1 ram: 10-15 ewes
-> compact lambing period
Goats - reproduction basics
Puberty; does 5-7 months, bucks 4-6 months
estrous 21 days
Goats - PD
may show signs of estrus early in pregnancy
pseudopregnancy - persistent CL, treat with PGF
expulsion of a fetus incapable of independent life
Brucellosis order definition < 271 days, requires investigation
> 2% is abnormal
- ID & isolate affected animal, retain products of abortion
NB don't use aborter as foster mother
Abortion investigation
Fetal exam - weight, size (crown-rump length), appearance
estimate fetal stage, NB incisors erupt 8-9 months
gross pathology
bacteriology of fetal stomach contents
serology - fetal fluids & blood, BVD, BD, Lepto, Neospora,
Toxoplasma, Coxiella
(Virology - culture liver)
Maternal blood screen - BVD, IBR, Lepto, Neo, Toxo, Coxiella
Non-infectious causes of abortion
Uterine damage
Nutrition, Iodine deficiency - goiter in fetus
Nitrate/nitrite poisoning - roots, brassicas, grass silage
→ methemoglobinemia
genetic/congenital factors (chromosomal abnormalities)
Induced - vet pd/treatment (PG or corticosteroids)
Infectious causes of abortion
BVDV, BD, IBR/BHV-1, Neospora, Leptospira, Toxoplasma, Coxiella
Campylobacter fetus ssp venerealis, Trichomonas fetus,
Salmonella, Arcanobacterium, Listeria
(Brucella, Blue tongue)
non-specific metritis or endometritis
Campylobacter fetus ssp venerealis
STD - natural service, bulls are asymptomatic carriers
Cows - temporary infection - endometritis, usually clears after
abortion (EED)
test bull
Trichomonas fetus
STD - natural service, bulls are asymptomatic carriers
Cows - self-limiting infection, endometritis, abortion
cull infected bulls?
Neospora caninum
horizontal entry to farm, then transmitted vertically & via dogs
Causes abortion storms, calves with neurological signs
(weakness, ataxia), infected but normal calves
can reactivate in subsequent pregnancies, cull repeat aborters
test farm dog
Systemic illness abortions
Salmonellosis - systemically unwell, scour
Listeriosis - systemically unwell, metritis/retained placenta,
+/- neurological signs.
Focal necrosis of cotyledonary villi, miliary necrosis of fetal
liver & spleen
IBR/BHV-1 - multifocal necrosis of fetal liver, spleen, kidneys
& lungs
Brucellosis abortions
eradication in UK, cases - imported cattle
placentitis, fibrinous serositis
Leptospira abortions
Transmission - urine, semen, vertical, water-borne
CS; sporadic abortions, milk drop, flabby bag
Pathology - icterus, edema, renal degeneration & inflammation
(small gray spots)
vaccination, antibiotics, isolation zoonotic
BVDV abortions
Causes abortions & infected but normal (PI) calves
anomalies of skeletal, nervous, CV, respiratory systems, etc
Sheep - abortion, infectious causes
BD, Toxoplasma, Leptospira, Coxiella, BVDV?
Chalmydophila abortus/EAE, Campylobacter fetus ssp fetus,
Salmonella, Listeria, Tick borne fever (Anaplasma)
(Brucella, Blue tongue)
Sheep = abortion, non-infectious causes
Inadequate nutrition - need high quality fiber, rumen
Pregnancy toxemia - late pregnancy, twins & triplets, older
ewes, fat ewes
less than adequate nutrition in last 2 months of pregnancy
Concurrent disease
EAE/Chlamydophila abortus
pathology - necrotizing placentitis
ZN stain
control - tetracyclines, vaccinate, cull aborted ewes,
buy EAE-free accredited stock zoonotic
oocysts shed in feces of young cats, contaminated feed
CS - abortion, still born or weak lamb + brown mummified fetus, normal but infected lambs
pathology - focal necrosis & calcificaiton (white spots) on cotyledons (placenta)
Control - retain aborted ewes, control cats, cat-proof feed, decoquinate, vaccine zoonotic
Campylobacter fetus ssp fetus
contaminated water & feed, reservoir - pigs & poultry
pathology - brown muco-purulent vaginal discharge, enlarged necrotic cotyledons
Control - isolate, tetracycline, retain aborted ewes zoonotic
Brucella melitensis
Mediteranean basin, notifiable zoonotic
orchitis, abortion storms
Border disease
'Hairy shakers' - wobbly lambs with thick wooly coat
Pathology - dysplasia of skeleton, CNS & fleece
Tick borne fever/Anaplasma phagocytophilum
Sheep tick - Ixodes ricinus
sporadic abortion in non-immune flocks
Control - tick control, tetracyclines
(RBCs, separates with centrifugation)
→ enzootic hematuria (bracken fern), pyelonephritis, purulent metastatic nephritis, urolithiasis
(no RBCs, doesn't separate)
→ babesiosis, post-partum hemoglobinuria, rape/kale poisoning, bacillary hemoglobinuria (Clostridium haemolyticum), Acute Cu poisoning, water intoxication
Bracken fern toxicity
causes enzootic hematuria (bladder tumors, bleed), bright
blindness in sheep, oral/esophageal/reticular carcinomas,
aplastic anemia
Sheep - Urethral obstruction in rams
Risk factors - dietary P: Ca > 2, ↑concentrate/↓roughage
diets, insufficient water
group problem
CS - anorexia, pain, crystals at prepuce, anuria, dripping urine
Cull, ensure adequate water supply & evaluate diet of other
animals in group - Ca:P > 2.5, sufficient roughage
tick-borne, naive animals in tick areas (bought in)
CS; pyrexia, anorexia, depression, weakness, hemoglobinuria, anemia, jaundice, diarrhea, muscle wasting
Tx; Imidocarb, notify animal health of use
Post-parturient hemaglobinuria
associated with hypophophatemia, possible subclinical ketosis pre-partum
CS - CS; Hemaglobinuria, inappetance, milk drop,
dehydration, +/- pyrexia, jaundice, high mortality
test Ca, P, Mg, +/- BHB
Tx - blood transfusion + phosphate
ascending infection with Corynebacterium renale (unilateral)
CS; acute - abdominal pain, dull, anorexic, dysuria, pollakiuria with blood and/or pus
enlarged painful left kidney on rectal palpation, dipstick, US
Tx - Pennicillin for 21 days + NSAIDs, guarded prognosis
Renal amyloidosis
chronic disease, bilateral
CS - massive non-painful left kidney, frothy urine, weight loss
dipstick (+++++protein), US - large kidney w/ normal structure
Renal failure
uncommon, culled
pre-renal - severe scour in calves
renal - plant toxins eg Oak/acorn poisoning, infections
post-renal - urolithiasis
BVDV - Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus
transmission - vertical (naive infected cow or PI cow), sexual
CS - subtle, poor herd performance, ill thrift in calves,
abortion, fetal stunting, cerebellar hypoplasia,
diarrhea in adults in naive herd
Mucosal disease - oral & feet lesions - ulcers
BVDV diagnosis & control
Dx - bulk milk ELISA or PCR 4x/yr, individual blood samples from bulls & herd replacements ELISA or PCR, ear tag sample calves PCR
PIs - Ag+/Ab-
False + -> border disease virus, acute infection
False - -> colostral Abs (< 9 months)
control - ID & cull PIs, vaccinate
Scottish BVDV eradication scheme - mandatory screening of breeding herds
Pre-partum problems
(Pregnancy Toxemia - sheep), (Hypocalcemia - sheep),
Trauma, Dietary disturbances, vaginal prolapse, Hydrallantois,
vaginal prolapse
late gestation
Herefords, fat?, estrogenic pastures
Surgery - epidural, lubricate, replace, Buhner's suture - umbilical tape
highly repeatable -> cull
Cs - severely swollen abdomen, weakness, inappetance, ↓BCS, impaired respiration
prognosis guarded consider culling
Tx; give fluids, induce parturition - corticosteroids
Parturient problems
Dystocia, Trauma, Obstetric paralysis, hemorrhage, uterine prolapse, Retained fetal membranes, Mastitis, Hypocalcemia
Failure of one of the components of the birthing process;
expulsive forces - weak abdominal straining, uterine inertia
adequacy of birth canal - incomplete dilation or constriction,
inadequate pelvis
size & disposition of fetus - relative & absolute, congenital
monsters, fetal pathology, faulty disposition (presentation,
position & posture)
1/3 of fetal & calf losses occur at parturition
Dystocia - history
Full term?, sire, breeding history (if cow),
when did straining begin - force & frequency, (Is she still straining?), appearance of water bag?, appearance of any parts of fetus,
has she been examined, what has she been given
Dystocia - assessment
quick general PE on cow - appearance, size, anxiety
Epidural & clenbuterol
clean & disinfect cow & self, lube, examine - dilated? damaged birth canal?, calf viable (movement, pulse), calf size, uterus contracting?
Options; fetotomy (if dead), assisted delivery, cesarean
NB cows pelvis widest at diagonal
Uterine torsion
Determine direction & degree of rotation
- 180 most common
consider cesarean
schistosome - acute vertebral angulation, viscera exposed
hydrocephalus - big head
double headed calf, twin malformations
anasarca - swollen edematous carcass
Dystocia - assisted delivery
If no progress then stop pulling, re-assess
After calf delivered check cow for 2nd calf, tears or bleeding
= cutting open vulva, 2 incisions (at 10 and 2 o'clock)
when vulva is open restriction to passage of calf
give epidural & suture after delivery of calf
Calf resuscitation
clean off fetal membranes,
stimulate breathing - swing, massage chest, straw in nose
If not breathing within 2 minutes then intubate & ventilate, Doxapram under tongue or etamiphylline gel
Neonatal calf care
ensure calf receives adequate colostrum, must be able to get up & suckle
Cesarean section - indications
fetal oversize, failure of cervix to dilate, irreducible malposture, irreducible uterine torsion, fetal emphysema, and stage labor began > 24 hrs ago
elective - pelvic deformity, uterine rupture, severe hemorrhage
Cesarean section
Premed - line or para-veretbral block, epidural if straining a lot, Clenbuterol, antibiotics if suspect infection
Clip & scrub
Post - clean, give oxytocin
Cesarean section - surgery
Flank incision - diagonally through skin, EAO, blunt dissect IAO, incise transverse abdominus, peritoneum
incise uterus - long enough to remove calf
remove & hand-off calf
Suture uterus - double layered cushing chromic catgut 6-8,
suture peritoneum & each muscle layer chromic catgut 5 or 6,
suture hypodermis & skin - nylon
Dystocia - prevention
breed for calving ease - sire
monitor heifer pelvic size & breed at apt stage of maturity
NB Dystocia causes chronic problems - reduced milk production, weak calves
Recumbent peri-parturient cow
milk fever, mastitis & metritis, obstetric paralysis, sacroiliac luxation, femoral fracture, coxofemoral luxation, gastrocnemius rupture, 2o ischemic necrosis
Obstetric paralysis
Damage to obturator N, ischiatic N
CS; paresis, ataxia, lateral deviation of hind legs (splay)
Dx; history, appearance, absence of other abnormalities
prognosis ↓ with time (< 12 hrs), can cause fractures and muscle tears
Tx; NSAIDs, hobbles, supportive care - bedding, turning
Rapid improvement within few days & complete recovery,
recovery unlikely if not markedly improved within fortnight
Uterine prolapse
risk of ruptured uterine A - can exsanguinate, emergency!
Assess circulation, hemorrhage, herniation
Tx; epidural, Clenbuterol, replace & give oxytocin or resect
can occur within minutes - hours of calving
- dairy cattle, milk fever, dystocia
Retained fetal membranes (RFM > 6-12 hrs)
- failure of separation and/or expulsion
CS; putrefaction (smell), metritis, pyrexia, inappetance, tenesmus, diarrhea, mastitis, death
Tx; oxytocin (in 1st 6-12 hrs), Ca, gentle traction, trim dirty membranes level with vulva, monitor T & appetite daily, antibiotics if pyrexic
predisposes to metritis & endometritis
Risk factors - premature birth, infectious placentitis, induced calving, over-stretching of myometrium (twins, dystocia, hydrallantois), hypocalcemia
Prevention - breeding management,
transition management - BCS, vit ADE, Se
Post-partum problems
Metritis, Endometritis, pyometra,
trauma, obstetric paralysis, hemorrhage, uterine prolapse, peritonitis, septicemia, mastitis, hypocalcemia,
post-parturient Hemoglobinuria, LDA
CS; acute (24-48 hrs), depression, inappetance, agalactia, pyrexia or hypothermia, recumbent, homogeneous red-brown vaginal discharge, uterus distended, death
Tx; Uterine lavage, systemic antibiotics, NSAIDs, fluids PO/IV
CS; chronic, discharge on tail, palpation - , no systemic signs
regular return to estrus, irregular return to estrus or no discernible effect → pyometra
Tx; Antibiotic infusion?, PGF2a?, estrogens?
- thin walled fluid filled uterus, no fetal membranes, no placentomes
Tx; PGF2a (associated with luteal cysts)
Transition period
Important time, from 3 weeks pre - 3 weeks post-partum
sudden ↑ in nutrient demands, ↓ in dry matter intake (last week of pregnancy, estradiol & space taken up by fetus)
inadequate management → metabolic disorders (RFM, milk fever, LDA, ketosis, poor production, poor fertility)
management - diet, BCS
Transition period - BCS
Important to maintain apt BCS
fat cows are predisposed to ketosis, hepatic lipidosis, dystocia, LDA, mastitis
Transition diet
ensure adequate DMI around calving, condition rumen for lactation diet → good fiber, restricted energy, good quality protein, restricted Ca
- increased digestible CHO
greatest demand 3-4 weeks post-partum in cow
high demand + insufficient intake -> range of syndromes
fatty liver (mild) → subclinical ketosis → clinical ketosis → fat cow syndrome (severe, fatal)
- fat breakdown -> FFAs in liver (exceeds livers metabolic capacity), exhaustion of glucogenic precursors stalls krebs cycle
Risk factors - LDA, metritis, etc (Often 2o), high production heifers, winter housing/silage feeding, fat cows, previous occ
CS; inappetance, milk drop, depression, recumbency, neurologic signs (licking & chewing manias), acetone breath, ketonuria (dipstix or diagnostic tablet)
(no pain, T, CV & respiratory normal, no ping)
Ketosis - treatment
Tx: 500mLs 50% dextrose IV, oral glucose precursors eg propylene glycol (Ketol, Forketos) for 3-4 days (200mLs BID 1st day, 100mLs BID next 3 days) - maintain blood glucose prevent relapse → somnolence, milk taint
B vit supplement - niacin anti-lipolytic, ↑blood glu & insulin
Pregnancy toxemia (beef cattle & sheep)
high fetal Glu requirements (twins & triplets) + declining/poor nutrition last 1-2 months of pregnancy (bad teeth, lameness, adverse weather)
CS; dull, weak, lethargic, depressed, neurologic signs, recumbency, death PM - hepatic & renal fat infiltration
poor prognosis, consider salvage cesarean section or induction with dexamethasone & PG
Tx; Dextrose iv, glucogenic precursors PO
Pregnancy toxemia - prevention
Prevention; scan ewes, feed concentrates from 6 weeks pre-lambing, supplement ewes with twins & triplets, condition score regularly and adjust feeding as needed
LDA/Left Displaced Abomasum
= abomasum displaced & trapped between rumen & left abdominal wall, often within 6 weeks post-partum
- over conditioned cows, negative E balance, stress (inapt management) → decreased abomasal motility & emptying
Risk factors; poor transitional nutrition, fat cows, twins, poor weather, other problems - Hypocalcemia, ketosis, acidosis, RFM, metritis (illness → ↓intake)
taller cows - elliptical shaped abdomens (deep)
LDA - CS & Tx
CS; ↓milk yield, ↓appetite, ping over left ribs 9-13, Ddx ketosis
good prognosis with surgery, treat concurrent disease
- right flank laparotomy + caudoventral omentopexy,
left flank laparotomy + ventral abomasopexy or omentopexy, laparoscopic
LDA - prevention
maximize DMI in peri-parturient cow - palatable forage, ad lib, min competition, separate management group,
ensure adequate fiber of sufficient length, introduce rapidly fermentable CHOs slowly (concentrates & silage), +/- antioxidant supplements
supply plenty of water
dry off at optimum BCS (2.5-3) & maintain until calving, monitor for signs of GI upset, ketosis & hypocalcemia
Mineral elements
Interactions between mineral elements
eg Cu depends on Fe, Mo, S
Functions - structural, physiological, enzymes, regulatory
Measures of adequacy - minimum, ave
Production traits can reflect mineral deficiencies - milk
production, growth, reproductive performance
different traits → different measures of adequacy
Ca, Mg, P, Na, Cl, K
Hypocalcemia/milk fever/Bovine parturient paraparesis
= insufficient available circulating Ca
(normal plasma Ca > 2 mmol/L, ionized Ca > 1.1 mmol/L)
- sudden increase in demand (for milk) + decreased supply (intake), shift to mobilization from body stores takes time
few days before - week after calving, mature cows, acute
Risk factors; fat, chronic ↓Mg intake, genetics (mod heritable - Jerseys), high production, late summer & autumn
Hypocalcemia - CS & assessment
CS; weak, tremor, cold ears, ↓GI motility, rumen tympany, hypothermia, weak fluttery heart beat, recumbency, death
Assessment; Is death imminent? Calving? Live calf? Hemorrhage? Uterine prolapse? Evisceration? Mastitis? Bloat? fractures/luxations?
Treat more significant ailments 1st, then Ca
Hypocalcemia - Tx
Tx; position in sternal recumbency & point up-hill, restrain, slow IV Ca +/- Glu/dextrose & Mg (calciject 20 or 40, over 10-15 min) & auscultate heart (slow infusion if dropped beats), AE - cardiac arrest, Mg reduces risk
follow up with SC or oral preparation eg Calcoral or Enercal gel, Phosphorus IV, remove calf for 12-48 hrs
Evidence of response to treatment; sweat on muzzle, steam rising from coat, eructation, tremor, standing
Hypocalcemia - prevention
DCAD (Dietary Cation Anion Difference) diet last 2-3 weeks of gestation - mix with highly palatable ration
Limit Ca & P pre-partum - min 30 g/day Ca, < 80 g/day P
Normal Ca + binding agent - phytates eg calfix
Prophylactic Ca - high risk animals, oral gel or SC injection eg BoviKalc
Hypocalcemia in sheep
6 weeks pre to 1 week post-partum
Risk factors - recent movement, reduced intake - bad weather, oxalates or green cereal crops
CS; tremor, weakness - flaccid paralysis, staggering gait, recumbency, death no ketonuria (dipstick, Ddx preg tox)
Tx; Calcium Borogluconate (CBG) IV or SC eg calciject 20
Prevention; avoid transport late gestation, supplement aptly
Hypomagnesemia/Grass staggers/Lactational tetany
= < 0.4 mmol/L + trigger (- ↓intake - bad weather, transport stress, concurrent disease, etc → hypocalcemia) → CS
Daily nutritional requirement 30 g/day
low Mg diet - rye grass, pastures with ↑K fertilizers or slurry, wet pasture, lush grass, ↑N, ↑K, ↓E -> ↓Mg absorption
- ↑demand (milk) + ↓intake → inhibits neuro-muscular function, tetanic muscle spasms, convulsions
Spring & Autumn, recent turn-out
Post-partum Dairy cattle ( < 2 months), milk fed calves (3-6 months), adult store beef cattle, sheep post-partum
CS; stop grazing, discomfort, hyperaesthesia, twitching, ears pricked, jaw chomping, pyrexia, staggering, recumbency, paddling, sudden death, sudden death of healthy calf
Hypomagnesemia - Tx
Tx - approach quietly, +/- sedation (xylazine), MgSO4 SC, Ca borogluconate (CBG) slowly IV, supplementary feed & water prognosis poor if not up within 2 hrs
Prevention - pasture management - limit use of fertilizers, herd management - turnout timing, supplement in risk period - Mg salt in feed, Mg bullets, MgCl in water, mineral blocks, hay
supplement calves with hay (adequate Mg in milk replacer)
Trace elements
Fe, Co, Cu, Mo, Zn, Se, I, B, F, Si, Cr, Mn
Plant Mineral content
Soil - pH (lime → ↑pH - ↑Mo availability,
sulphate fertilizers - ↓pH - ↑Co & Mn availability),
water logging → ↑Co, Mo, Mn
soil ingestion - Co, I, Se
climate & season - atmospheric - S, I, N (↓away from coast)
plant stage & maturity (Zn, Cu, Co, Mn ↓with age - stem <
seed, straw poor source, oil seed < cereal)
Causes of Deficiency
- low intake, low availability/absorption, increased requirement
Selenium deficiency/white muscle disease
- ↓Se (granite derived soils), ↓availability (↑S), ↑requirement (↑PUFAs or heavy metals, legumes, season/cold, ↓vit E)
CS; muscle degeneration, still births, sudden death after exertion, stiff lamb disease, ill thrift, ↓growth rate, reproductive failure, mastitis, RFM, post-parturient heamoglobinuria?, Heinz body anemia
2o/induced I deficiency (deiodinase converts T4→ T3)
White muscle disease
Dx; GSH-peroxidase (GSH-PX or GPX), PM
individual - ↑LDH, CPK, SGOT
Tx; injectable Se/vit E (repeated injections can be toxic; acute - dyspnea, pulmonary edema, diarrhea, death. Chronic - severe lameness & pain)
Prevention - supplementation in feed, boluses, injectable Se/vit E
Selenium toxicity
→ Blind staggers - blindness, abdominal pain, shedding hooves, paralysis, respiratory failure
- accumulator plants eg Astragalus
Copper deficiency
- ↓availability - ↑Mo, S, Fe, ↑pH
CS; depigmentation - 'spectacles', anemia, diarrhea, fetal death
steely wool (straight - loses crimp, weak), pathological epiphyseal fractures
Swayback in lambs - small weak lambs, head tremor, poor coordination (myelin aplasia & motor N degeneration)
Copper deficiency 2
PM - aortic rupture, cardiac enlargement, swollen epiphyses
Dx; CS + liver [Cu] - biopsy or PM, response to supplementation
NB plasma [Cu] can be normal in deficiency
Tx; Cu supplementation - in feed, bolus, lick blocks
injectable - risk of local reaction → abscess
Copper toxicity
Chronic → hepatotoxicosis, acute hemolytic anemia
Acute → abdominal pain, convulsions, collapse & death
Cobalt deficiency/Pine
Cobalt is part of Vit B12 - cofactor for conversion of proprionate to succinate in Energy metabolism
- Wasting disease - inappetance, poor growth, weight loss, pale MM
Dx; regional history, FIGLU in urine, Liver Co, serum B12
Tx; parenteral B12, bolus or in feed for others at risk
Iodine deficiency/Iodine-associated thyroid deficiency - Goiter
Cause; gross environmental I deficiency, ↓uptake - goitrogens eg thiouracils (cruciferae, rape seed), cyanogenic glycosides (brassicacea, clover, rape seed), ↑requirement - cold stress,
↓Thyroid hormone metabolism - Se deficiency (T4→T3)
CS; goiter pathognomonic, stillbirths, weak calves
Dx; PM, plasma [T4], plasma inorganic Iodine
Prevention; Supplement - in feed, salt licks, kelp, drenching, boluses → no effect if thiouracils
Milk Legislation
EC hygiene regulations 853 & 854 - microorganisms & SCC standards (bulk tank SSC geometric mean over 3 months < 400,000, TBC geometric mean over 2 months < 100,000),
no residues, conditions for hygiene & welfare, HACCP - pasteurization & antibiotic residues, traceability back to farm
antibiotics - Veterinary medicines regulations 2008
Council directive 92/46/EEC
Microbes in milk
Raw milk - MAP (paratuberculosis), antibiotics, E. coli, rBST (GH), Tb, FMD, Bluetongue, Salmonella, S. aureus, Listeria, Leptospira, Q fever
- all are killed by pasteurization (71.7oC for 25 seconds)
Milk wages
Payments based on bactoscan, SCC, antibiotics, added H2O - FPD, fat & protein, volume
Milk safety
Farm; Herd - Tuberculosis-free, Brucellosis-free
Cow - not ill, no zoonoses, not under treatment (residues)
Hygienic premises, equipment & tools, staff hygiene
Cooled to 8oC before collection by tanker
Transported by tanker (cleaned & disinfected before re-use)
Tested for antibiotics, accepted by dairy (or farm pays for entire tanker)
Pasteurization - at least 71.7oC for 15 seconds (25 seconds preferred - paratuberculosis) kills most pathogenic organisms
UHT (ultra heat treated) - 135oC for 1 second, doesn't require refrigeration, alters taste
= Infection/inflammation of 1 or more quarters of the mammary gland, usually caused by bacteria which enter via teat canal (occasionally hematogenous spread - Tb, Lepto)
Dynamic process; subclinical infection → recovery or persistence → clinical infection, acute mastitis, illness and/or loss of quarter, peracute mastitis, death
affects milk quality - ↓yield, ↑SCC, ↑bacteria, ↑residues
Subclinical mastitis
↑SCC (WBCs & sloughed epithelial cells)
individual cow SCC varies with stage of lactation
Clinical mastitis
CS; hot, swollen, painful quarter(s), ↓yield, ↑SCC
Dx; California mastitis test - determine affected quarters, then culture milk (bacteriology) - ID bacteria often *S. aureus
Herd picture - sample 10+ cows
Mastitis - Tx considerations
# of cows affected, SCC, # quarters, bacteria isolated (S. aureus difficult to eliminate)
yield, age & genetic merit, fertility status (in calf?), stage of lactation (late → dry off), quota & availability of replacements, other diseases - lameness, metabolic disease, etc → cull
Mastitis - Tx options
withhold milk from bulk tank
early dry cow therapy (dry off early & treat with DCT)
therapy during lactation (freshly calved cows, intra-mammary + parenteral antibiotics, rarely successful)
bring in clean heifers & keep them clean
Cull - Chronic infections - 3 treatments in 1 quarter or 4 treatments in 1 year, chronic ↑SCC (2+ records, > 250,000, excluding early & late lactation)
Mastitis targets (guide)
< 5% new infections
< 20% per year
< 15% herd affected per year
< 10% recurrence
< 1.4 tubes per cow
3 tubes per case
Staphylococcus aureus/ S. aureus
transferred during milking, contagious & very resistant (~50% Penicillin resistant), found on skin/sores
→ parlor hygiene, segregation, targeted treatment (intracellular, may require extended treatment, milk withdrawal may be uneconomical), cull
Escherichia coli/ E. coli
environmental, can cause very acute mastitis, ubiquitous in slurry, survives for long periods in environment, invasion in dry period, may persist in udder
→ Clean dry environment, long-acting dry cow therapy, pre-milking teat dip
Mastitis - Other microbes
S. agalactiae - subclinical
S. dysgalactiae - summer mastitis
S. uberis - environmental
A. pyogenes - summer mastitis, flies
Mycoplasma, Leptospira (flabby bag), yeast
Udder defenses
Teat position, shape & length, teat duct length, width & keratin
(can be bred for, farmers commonly bread for teats with wider ducts ie faster milking, which increases risk of mastitis)
udder - strong attachment, not deep
Epithelial barrier, Local & systemic immunity
Healing takes time, SCC remains elevated for ~ 3 months
Mastitis records
1 case = 1 affected quarter
Clinical mastitis - cow ID, quarter affected, grade, treatment, state after treatment
bulk tank SCC, cull rate due to mastitis
Mastitis 5 Point plan
Prompt treatment of clinical cases
Dry Cow Therapy - standard treatment protocol, intra-mammary antibiotics or teat sealant
Post-milking teat dip - immediately, good cover, protects, aids healing (Iodophores, Chlorhexidine, QUATs, Hypochlorite)
Maintain & use the milking machine aptly - routine cleaning & replacement of worn parts
Cull chronic cases
Mastitis - Antimicrobials
treat sick cows with systemic antimicrobials
eg erythromycin, tylosin, panethamate (good penetration of udder)
Mastitis - other controls
Environment - clean, dry, comfortable lying area
Genetics - can breed for lower SCC, teat shape - small diameter, not long, "pointed", udder - strong, not deep
Peracute mastitis
CS - very sick - depressed, recumbent, pyrexic, anorexic, dehydrated, rumen stasis, high mortality, poor prognosis
Tx; Broad spectrum Antibiotics - parenteral +/- intra-mammary, oxytocin (80 u), fluids (oral 70-90L, IV 40L, hypertonic saline 3L + 40L oral), NSAIDs, Ca, +/- rumen stimulants
Risk factors - concurrent disease, inapt care of dry cows & newly calved cows
Teat lesions
Causes; environmental, milking machine induced, infectious, trauma, chemical
photosensitization - red, cracking, peeling, painful
Bovine herpes mammilitis (BHV II) - swollen, painful, purple
Pseudocowpox - red papules - brown crusts
Bovine Herpes Mammilitis
BHV-II, transmission - flies?, milker's hands/machines, or trauma, bought-in animals, latent re-activated by stress
rapid onset, ~ 50% of herd affected, heifers more severe
CS; teat swollen & firm, purple/brown - gray, macerated, raw bleeding sore, exudation & black scab, udder & oral lesions, varying size & severity, very painful, generalized skin disease,
self-limiting - 2 months, recurrence unlikely
Control; milk affected animals last, good milking hygiene, flies
Parapox virus, transmission - milker's hands/machine, flies
very common, slow spread, associated with BPS lesions in calves, milker's nodules in man
CS; small 2-3 mm red papules → firm brown crusting & circular spread, red border & central fawn serum crust, 15-20 mm round, oval or horse-shoe shaped lesions
poor immunity, slow healing, cyclic waves of reinfection herd
Bovine viral papillomatosis
6 types, *BPV 6 → squamous papilloma of teat
very common, especially young animals 6-24 months old,
CS; multiple gray firm hyperkeratotic pedunculated or broad-based lesions - head, neck, dewlap, teats & interdigital skin
(PI + co-factors → malignancy, rare - GI or bladder cancer)
Tx; salves & emollients, most regress within 12 months, surgical excision (rubber band), cryosurgery auto vaccines
Black spot
2o bacterial infection of teat orifice - Fusobacterium necrophorum or S. aureus
- associated with other teat lesions & poor milking hygiene
Teat trauma
Tramped teats - poor cubicle design, poor udder & teat conformation, overstocking, etc
cut teats - barbed wire, poor housing
Assess -perforated gland tissue?, teat canal intact?, mastitis?
Tx; oxytocin & milk out via milk catheter, sedation + ring block, debride, suture - mattress in mucosa, SC & skin sutures, bandage Post-op intra-mammary antibiotics, change bandage, temporary dry period until healed
Other sources of teat damage
milking machine -> hyperkeratosis, edema
environmental - sunburn, chapped teats, frost
Milking machine
Problems; poor pulsation (50/min, ratio 65 milk:35 rest),
poor liner design (~30mm base, ~22mm mouth, change rubber q2500 milkings, silicone q 6500), poor vacuum stability, excessive vacuum levels,
poor cleanliness of milking line/sterilization, automatic cluster removal(~300g/L)
Teat amputation
indications - severe loss of tissue, horizontal lesion covering > 60% of circumference, injury to teat canal, mastitis in affected teat
Proximal to injury & at least 1-2 cm distal to venous ring, trim tissues shorter than skin, inverting sutures in mucosa, skin
Teat canal surgery
via lateral endoscopy
Major causes of neonatal calf mortality (1 month)
fetal disease, dystocia/losses during parturition, enteric diseases, septicemia, respiratory infections
- dullness, depression, loss of suck reflex
Neonatal calf diarrhea
CS - dullness, depression, loss of suck reflex (metabolic acidosis, K depletion - chronic, increased plasma [K] - acute)
Investigation (outbreak) - sample 5g feces from 4 affected & 4 age matched healthy calves - test for Rotavirus, Coronavirus, Cryptosporidium, Salmonella
Neonatal diarrhea - microbes
Rotavirus, Coronavirus < 3 weeks
Cryptosporidiosis < 3 months
ETEC < 4 days, VTEC, EHEC, Clostridium difficile, Giardia (zoonotic), Torovirus, Campylobacter, Eimeria bovis & zuernii (Coccidiosis) 4-6 weeks, Mixed infections, Nutrition
Fecal-oral & water or food-borne, zoonotic
Low infectious dose, Oocysts viable in environment long time, shedding - from 3 days old, peaks at 2 wks, continues into adulthood. Up to 100% dairy calves infected
CS; diarrhea in calves < 3 month old (malabsorptive)
Dx; microscopic ID - ZN, ELISA
Immunity develops with age (continue to shed), Halofuginone reduces shedding
fecal-oral, water-borne
Infection common, may not be cause of diarrhea
CS; diarrhea in calves < 3 weeks old, (malabsorptive)
Dx; viral load in ill animals > viral load in well animals
Histopathology; villus atrophy & fusion, immature cells with few goblet cells at tips
prevention; vaccinate dam
Typhimurium affects calves < 2 months, Dublin affects older calves & adults
CS; profuse watery diarrhea +/- hemorrhagic (IR), systemic signs - fever, dullness, loss of appetite (endotoxemia)
Dublin may cause meningoencephalitis, septic arthritis, respiratory disease, gangrenous necrosis of extremities, some calves become carriers
Dx; API, PGE *Reportable, zoonotic
Ubiquitous infection, persistent infection
CS; diarrhea in calves < 3 weeks old, also implicated in respiratory disease in older calves and winter dysentery in adults
Dx; serology, histopathology, RT-PCR
prevention; MDA crucial
Neonatal diarrhea - treatment
Fluids; slightly depressed, skin tent -> 5-8%, oral fluids
depressed, cold extremities, weak or collapsed -> 8-10%, IV
jugular or auricular catheter, rate - max 80 mLs/kg/hr 1st 2-3 L, then 30-50 mLs/kg/hr
continue to feed & give fluids between feedings
Antibiotics is systemically ill or blood in feces (amoxi, potentiated sulphonamides, ceftiofur or fluorquinolones)
NSAIDs - Meloxicam or flunixin meglumine 1x (max 3)
Neonatal diarrhea - prevention
Separate age groups, "all in all out" system, cleansing & disinfection of house & equipment
drainage, ventilation
isolate sick animals & handle last
Nutrition - quality, quantity, Temperature, freq
Vaccinate cows - Rotavec Corona Emulsion and Lactovac - rotavirus, coronavirus, E. coli k99
systemic illness associated with pathogens in blood
- failure of passive transfer or overwhelming exposure
Dairy calves < 2 weeks, rapid progression, often fatal, depression, ↓ suckling, hyperemic MM, abnormal T, shock
+/- diarrhea, local infection
Septicemia 2
Tx; broad spectrum Antimicrobials eg ceftiofur, ampicillin, florfenicol, fluroquinolones, preferably IV
NSAIDs - Flunixin meglumine
Supportive care - warmth, good bedding, nursing care, IVFT
Prevention; Good colostrum management, Environment and management practices, cleanliness, dip navels, Reduce dystocias
Neonatal septic arthritis/joint ill
usually 2o to umbilical or enteric infection
CS; lameness, joint swelling, pain
requires vigorous treatment
Bovine neonatal pancytopenia/Bleeding calf syndrome
associated with BVDV vaccine (Pregsure - Pfizer)
calves < 1 month, pyrexia, unexplained hemorrhage
Passive transfer
failure of passive transfer = serum IgG <10mg/mL at 24-48 hrs old [Colostrometer - SG (> 1.050 ~ high quality)]
high risk cows - 2nd lactation cows with ↑SCC
Calf should receive 10-12% BW at first feed, dairy calves often don't suckle enough to get adequate colostrum
Calf serum total solids; refractometer, test 12 calves 1-7 days old, 90% should have STS > 5.0 g/dL
Quality of colostrum affected by
nutrition during dry period, length of dry period (< 40 days - reduce quantity, < 21 days - reduced quality), vaccination of dam, time of collection (best within 1-2 hrs of calving), pre-partum leaking
Perinatal lamb mortality
Hypothermia; 40-50% of neonatal losses, lambs < 3 days old
Watery mouth (E. coli) - in lambs 1-3 days old
Hypothermia in lambs
lambs < 72 hrs old normal temperature 39-40o C
Moderate hypothermia 37-39o C
Dry thoroughly, feed by stomach tube, return to ewe and monitor
Severe hypothermia <37o C
>5 hrs old give 20% glucose 10 mL/kg IP 1st
dry, warm to 37o C, feed, warm to 39o C
Watery mouth in lambs
Affects lambs 1-3 day old, especially triplets
highest losses 2nd and subsequent weeks of lambing
non-enterotoxigenic E. coli
Cs; depression/lethargy, anorexia, profuse salivation, abdominal distension, +/- hypothermia
Tx; NSAIDs, oral dextrose/electrolyte solution, IVFT, antibiotics
Prevention; Colostrum, hygiene, prophylactic antibiotics
Neonatal diarrhea/lamb dysentery
Cryptosporidiosis - 2-20 days old
Rotavirus & Coronavirus - not primary cause
Clostridium Perfringens < 3 weeks, often 1-3 days old
ETEC 1st 24 hrs
Serotypes Typhimurium and Dublin
Outbreaks rare, usually following purchase of infected carrier
CS; profuse, blood stained, fetid smelling diarrhea, depression, pyrexia, dehydration, dyspnea, rapid progression to recumbency & death
Tx; fluid therapy, antibiotics, NSAIDs
Lamb dysentery/Clostridium perfringens
Affects lambs < 3 weeks old, often 1-3 days old
CS; peracute, fatal - sudden death of stronger single lambs
abdominal pain, nervous signs, semi-fluid blood stained feces
Dx; gram + rods in intestinal smears, ELISA for toxins, anaerobic culture
Prevention; vaccinate ewes with multi-component Clostridial vaccine, colostrum, antitoxin, hygiene
Neonatal bacteremias in lambs
Joint ill - 2-3 wks old, sudden onset lameness, not suckling
Spinal abscesses - sporadic, 4-12 wks old,often T2-L3, characteristic dog sitting posture, spastic paralysis hind limbs
Navel ill - navel moist, swollen, painful, hunched, poor sucklin
Meningitis - sporadic, 4-6 wks old, weakness, ataxia, depression, stupor, seizures
Trace element deficiencies in lambs
Iodine - goitre, stillbirths, hypothermia/starvation
Copper - congenital swayback, stillbirths, small weak lambs, neurological signs
Selenium - congenital white muscle disease, still births, weak lambs
Neonatal lamb care
hygiene (dispose of fetal membranes), dip navels,
ensure adequate intake of colostrum 50 mLs/kg in 1st 4 hrs,
Monitoring - regular checking of lambs - demeanor, full stomachs, navels
Calf pneumonia
- susceptible calves (age, breed, stress, colostral immunity) + pathogen load + husbandry (housed - ventilation, stocking rate, mixed age groups, nutrition, weather)
group problem, mortality up to 5%
CS - ↑RR & effort, coughing, adventitious lung sounds (crackles → bronchopneumonia, wheezes → viral interstitial pneumonia), dullness, anorexia, pyrexia
Pneumonic pasteurellosis
Mannheimia haemolytica - healthy carriers, initiating agent, endotoxic shock +/- adventitious lung sounds & coughing
Pasteurella multocida - present in nasal cavity of most ruminants, 2o pathogen
Histophilus somni - present in URT & LRT of some healthy cattle, thromboembolic meningoencephalitis
Pneumonic pasteurellosis 2
weaned suckler calves, Sep-Dec, within 4 weeks of housing
CS; depression, pyrexia, nasal discharge, ↑RR
Dx; culture - nasopharyngeal swabs or BAL, PM
Prevention; reduce stress, housing design, management
vaccination - Rispoval P, Bovipast RSP, Pastobov, Tecvax Pasteurella 1.6 (Mannheimia haemolytica A1)
Aspiration pneumonia
cranio-ventral soft crackles
Enzootic viral pneumonia
often follows stress
CS - pyrexia, nasal discharge, coughing, fluid sounds & crackles over cranio-ventral lungs
- BRSV, PI3, BRCoV, Bovine Adenovirus, BVDV
Vaccines - Torvac (RSV), Rispoval RS (BRSV), Imuresp (PI3), Rispoval 3 (RSV, PI3, BVDV), Rispoval 4 (RSV, PI3, IBR, BVDV)
IBR/Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis
BHV 1, aerosol, close contact, spreads slowly within group
calves > 6 months old, latency, stress → reactivation
CS; pyrexia, nasal discharge, halitosis (necrotic plaques), conjunctivitis, enlarged LNs, milk drop, drooling, "red nose", alters ion balance favoring colonization of lungs by bacteria
Dx; FAT, PCR, ELISA milk screen
Tx; antibiotics for 2o infections, vaccination in the face of an outbreak (intranasal vaccine, marker - gE), close herd
IBR vaccines
Rispoval IBR Marker Live, Imuresp RP (PI3 & BHV-1), Tracherine, Bovilis IBR, Bovilis IBR + PI3 live, Hiprabovis IBR marker live
Chronic cuffing pneumonia
- Mycoplasma dispar or bovirhinis
common especially in mixed groups, insidious onset
CS; cough, pyrexia, adventitious sounds over cranio-ventral lung fields
Diagnosis; PCR, FAT
Chronic suppurative pneumonia/respiratory cripples
Pasteurella multocida, A. pyogenes - abscesses, difficult for antibiotics to penetrate
CS; Dull, thin, heaves, variable temperature & adventitious lung sounds, thoracic pain, +/- halitosis (necrosis)
no long term response to treatment, cull
prevent by controlling 1o lung pathology
Acute neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
- fractured ribs or other trauma, inhalation of meconium, congenital defects
- double muscled calves, severe respiratory distress
→ corticosteroids, doxapram, antibiotics, colostrum
Calf pneumonia - Tx
Antimicrobials for 2o infections - Oxtet, Clavamox, ceftiofur, fluoroquinolones - IV/SC, document response & use proven drugs
NSAIDs - Flunixin, ketoprofen, Carprofen, Meloxicam
Isolate worst cases
Supportive care - comfortable environment - dust free bedding, good ventilation, draft-free, feed & water
Calf pneumonia - prevention
Housing - ventilation (min 6 air changes/hr), stocking density (air space 6m3/calf) (NB lower critical temp for newborn calf is <6C, getting rid of male calves reduces stocking density), separate age groups; cleaning & disinfection;
ensure adequate colostrum intake;
separate routine procedures eg weaning & castration; vaccinate
Bacterial meningoencephalitis
Calves & lambs 2-4 weeks old, may be associated with other sites of infection eg navel ill, enteritis & inadequate colostrum
CS; depression, lethargy, loss of suck, pain, rigidity of neck & back, hyperaesthesia, congested MM, blindness, recumbency, seizures
Dx; plasma glu & Mg, CSF - turbid, cytology - PMNs & ↑TP
Bacterial meningoencephalitis 2
Prognosis poor, antibiotics eg potentiated sulphonamides, florfenical 4-6 weeks, sedation, analgesia, supportive care
Cerebellar hypoplasia/daft lamb disease
few days old, genetic
Border Disease (virus)
CS; "hairy shakers" -coarse straight hairs, abnormal pigmentation, tremor
associated with abortions/stillbirths/weak calves & lambs
Swayback/Copper deficiency
Cu deficiency/excess Mo or S, geographic areas - soil
mild winter - reduced supplementation
CS; Congenital - small weak lambs, head tremor, poor coordination Delayed form (enzootic ataxia) - normal at birth, progressive hind limb weakness & ataxia from 2-4 months
Euthanasia, delayed form - Cu may slow progress
Prevention; Chelated Cu SC/IM to ewes during mid-gestation
Respiratory disease
increased expiratory effort +/- grunt → LRT - trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs
stridor (↑ pitched noise) on inspiration → larynx, cervical trachea, restrictive lung diseases & space occupying lesions of thorax
Respiratory disease 2
open mouthed breathing → advanced respiratory disease
Dyspnea → Respiratory - pneumonia, pulmonary edema, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, emphysema, nasal, pharyngeal/laryngeal or tracheal/bronchial obstruction
CV disease, blood disorder, acidosis, tetanus, pain
Bovine Respiratory Disease
- general term, covering pneumonia, rhinitis, tracheitis and bronchitis. Caused by Bovine Respiratory Disease complex - mixed infections including:
viruses; BRSV, PI3, Adenovirus, BVDV, IBR
bacteria; Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia heamolytica, Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis - cause acute disease
Parasites; lung worm Fungi; Aspergillus
Parasitic bronchitis/husk
Dictyocaulus viviparus
small infectious dose - carriers, larvae overwinter in soil
peaks in fall - Sep (wet spell after long dry spell), 1st season grazing cattle & adults (worst 6-8 months), Autumn born summer weaned calves at greatest risk
CS; cough, heaving/abdominal effort, stance - neck extended, abnormal sounds cd lung fields - crackles (emphysema)
Parasitic bronchitis/husk - severity
Severity - level of challenge, concurrent respiratory disease
naïve animals - No CS 1st 7 days, patent infection 25-60 days
Immune animals - heavy challenge can lead to "re-infection syndrome" - mild, not patent (don't shed), adults & 2nd years
effective immune response (CS resolve w/i 90 days), requires boosting (natural challenge)
Parasitic bronchitis/husk - Dx & Tx
Dx; L1s in feces - 50g feces, milk ELISA Ddx IBR
Tx; mild - dose with anthelmintics & move to clean pasture
severe - dose with anthelmintics & house, supportive care
Parasitic bronchitis/husk - Prevention
Vaccination - Bovilis huskvac (calves >8 wks, 2 doses before turnout, will cough, no anthelmintics for 2 wks)
If using long-acting anthelmintics for entire 1st grazing season then vaccinate before 2nd grazing season
May become carriers
vaccinate all stock & boost, don't mix vaccinated & un-vaccinated stock, don't graze susceptible stock after vaccinated stock
Fog fever & allergic disease
Group condition, fat beef cattle, sudden onset associated with lush pasture (Fall)
rapid influx of fluid into lungs (similar to anaphylaxis)
Bovine Farmer's Lung
Hypersensitivity to fungal spores - straw bedding
older cattle, early winter, human health risk
Cs; bright, thin, widespread squeaks/crackles over entirety of both lung fields → Cor pulmonale or diffuse fibrosing alveolitis
Tx; corticosteroids (acute) chronic → cull
Bovine Tb/Tuberculosis
Mycobacterium bovis, badgers zoonotic, notifiable
CS; variable, often none (depends on IR, chronic disease)
PM- caseous lesions in LNs - head & chest (meat inspection)
Dx; active surveillance, risk based skin testing q1-4 years (some exemptions in Scotland - Tb-free)
Intradermal skin test, gamma interferon blood test - less specific, higher sensitivity, used alongside skin test
Southwest England high risk area (annual testing) incidence increasing
Tb intradermal skin test
check animal ID, clip hair, measure skin via calipers, inject avian above (control) & bovine below (test sample), check for nodule (successful administration)
Re-check after 72 hrs - ID, measure, compare measurements to chart
If inconculsive then re-test in 60 days
If reactor then kill & culture → movement restrictions
Bovine Tb - control
badger vaccination, careful sourcing of animals, isolation of new intakes, biosecurity - keep badgers out, milk pasteurization & TB order - meat inspection, surveillance & slaughter
(farm movement restrictions if lesions noted at slaughterhouse)
Pasteurellosis - sheep
- Mannheimia haemolytica, Bibersteinia trehalosi, (Pasteurella multocida)
spring - colostral immunity waning, autumn - rapid growth
Pneumonic pasteurellosis/Enzootic pneumonia - sheep
Mannheimia haemolytica, multiple serotypes
summer & Fall, sporadic outbreaks, lambs < 3 mo & adults
CS; fever, dullness, anorexia, lung sounds - squeaks & rales
PM - cranioventral consolidation (red → gray-brown), fibrinous pleurisy, focal inflammation & hemorrhage or necrosis, congestion & edema, abscesses
Tx; tetracyclines, ceftiofur
Systemic pasteurellosis - sheep
Bibersteinia trehalosi, multiple serotypes
growing lambs ~ 6 months, autumn
CS; septicemia - dull, recumbent, sudden death PM - lungs - edema & congestion, pleurisy & pericarditis, enlarged hemorrhagic LNs, focal necrotizing hepatitis*, upper alimentary tract erosions
Tx; oxytetraycline
Prevention; vax - Heptavac P plus, Ovivac P Plus, minimize environmental & nutritional stresses
Maedi visna/Ovine Progressive Pneumonia
First CS 8-10 yrs after entry of infected animal into flock,
adults >2-3 yrs, transmitted via colostrum & aerosol
CS; exercise intolerance, Dyspnea, nervous signs (head tilt, circling, ataxia), wasting, mastitis, polyarthritis PM - diffuse consolidation, rubbery, hyperplastic bronchial/mediastinal LNs
Cull, Pedigree flock can snatch lambs at birth & rear artificially
Maedi visna accreditation
Prevention; buy animals from accredited stock
- must pass 2 qualifying blood tests 6-12 months apart & have certificate from vet that holding can comply with scheme rules & conditions
Jaagsiekte/Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA)
Long incubation - clinical signs in adults
CS; excess respiratory secretions → foamy drool, exercise intolerance, insidious loss of condition, ↑ abdominal effort (don't flip, fatal)
PM - localized consolidation of lungs (grey-brown), 2o pasteurellosis neoplastic nodules, froth in airways
Dx; wheelbarrow test, CS & PM
Atypical pneumonia - sheep
Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae
growing lambs < 1 yr, usually 2 months post-housing
CS; chronic persistent soft cough, mucopurulent nasal discharge
PM - cranioventral consolidation, cuffing pneumonia, peribronchiolar lymphoid hyperplasia
Tx; Tylosin?
Chronic pulmonary abscess - sheep
A. pyogenes, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (CLA)
individual animals, any age
- may be 2o to other respiratory disease eg jaagsiekte or maedi-visna or disseminated pyogenic infection in lambs eg navel ill, tick pyemia
PM - abscesses, caseous lymphadenitis (CLA)
Parasitic bronchitis - sheep
Dictyocaulus filaria (viviparus)
autumn/early winter, young animals - 1st season grazing
CS; harsh dry cough, bilateral nasal discharge, death uncommon unless 2o infection PM - caudal distribution
Protostrongylus rufescens
Tx; anthelmintics Cysticercus ovis - larval migratory tracts
Parasitic lung disease - sheep
Muellerius capillaris - incidental finding on PM; multiple discrete nodules (gun shot lesions)
Enzootic viral pneumonia - sheep
PI3, ovine adenovirus, RSV, reoviruses types 1,2 &3, BHV-1 & 5, OHV-1 & 2, CHV-1 (caprine herpesvirus type 1)
Laryngeal chondritis - sheep
Texel, beltex often tups
URT obstruction, one or both arytenoid cartilages, result of inflammation or abscessation
CS; sudden death, stertorous (rattling) respiration, referred sounds in trachea
Tx; prolonged lincomycin (off license - 28 day withdrawal)
Pulmonary thromboembolism
sudden death with hemoptysis
Losses - body weight, fertility, culling
Prevalence 15-25%
Biomechanics of the foot - hoof wall
normal weight bearing; mostly on hoof wall → P3 → bony column
lateral hind claws
wall/horn & sole produced by underlying corium, 0.5cm/month
quality depends on nutrition/health, illness eg toxic mastitis → hardship line, calving/housing → net loss of claw
hoof wall corroded by slurry, weakened by wet conditions - housing management
junction of sole/wall = white line (susceptible to damage)
Digital cushion
Digital cushion (shock absorber) - thickness directly related to BCS
Biomechanics of the foot - impact
Flooring determines impact on foot - housing is worse - concrete is very hard, rubber better, grass good
Normally cows lie down for periods of time each day - reduces duration of weight bearing/stress on feet. Lying time related to comfort - bedding, byre better than cubicles, cubicle design
Lameness - risk factors
Flooring - concrete worse, slats remove slurry but wear more, small stones damage feet (paths) - places cows walk
Housing - cleanlines (slurry), bedding, lying areas (#, comfort)
Management - hoof care
Nutrition - good feet need good nutrition & access to feed, nutrition -> slurry. Digital cushion thickness ~ BCS, correlated to sole ulcers & white line lesions
Previous lameness - care of 1st lactation heifers
Lameness - risk factors 2
Genetics - red/whites & Jersey x have less lameness, can select against lameness - requires good records, genetic influences can be balanced by management
Cow behavior
grass - less lameness, ↓er E density, requires good management, genetics
best when cows exiting the parlor
Mobility score - weight bearing, tracking up, head & back position, subjective
Record lesions - severity
Hoof trimming
careful restraint
toe length, even surface?,
Control of lameness
Housing management - flooring, slurry management, cubicles (lying)
Nutrition, health
Care of 1st lactation hiefers
Routine hoof care
Foot baths - 5% CuSO 3x/week
Lameness Exam
pick up foot, check between toes, coronary band, hoof wall, pare the sole - ID discoloration or drainage, hoof testers (pain)
palpate limb - swelling, heat, pain
joint flexion - pain?
- 70% claw lesions, 25% skin, 5% not foot
PADS/Pododermatitis Aseptica Diffusa - solar ulcer
Solar ulcer - lateral hind claw, often bilateral
Result of inability of horn to withstand environmental damage
- parturition (hormones→ CT), biomechanics (concrete), early lactation fat metabolism
changes in laminae or digital cushion -> pedal bones pinches corium -> hemorrhage
Tx - remove under-run horn, apply block to good claw
White line abscess
CS - acute lameness, inflammation (heat, swelling, pain)
penetration of white line by grit/small stones - weakened white line (change in environment, hoof trauma, growth deformity)
Tx - clean & pare sole, establish drainage, remove under-run horn, local disinfection, apply block to good claw
Digital Dermatitis/Mortellaro's disease/Hairy foot warts
Infectious (spirocheates - Treponema), herd problem, dirty passageways
- plantar hind foot, proximal to heel bulbs, 2-6cm, circular/oval, demarcated, raised borders, long hairs around, bleed easily
Tx - topical Lincomycin, bandage, foot baths. repeat in 45-60 days Prevention; good slurry management, foot baths, can improve fecal consistency - larger particles, ↑NDF
Foul in the foot/Interdigital necrobacillosis
Fusobacterium necrophporum +/- Dichelobacter nodosus + foot damage (rough straw), contaminated foot baths
CS; severe acute lameness, interdigital swelling, pain, splitting of skin, odor, toe spreading, fissures, cellulitis - pastern/fetlock
Tx; systemic Penn or Oxytet +/- cleaning & antimicrobials, bandage if damage significant, rapid healing (few days)
Foul in the foot - progression
can progress to suppurative arthritis & tenosynovitis
severe cases - pyrexia, milk drop, ↓BCS
Infectious foot disease
rough dirty passageways
Fusobacterium - contaminated foot baths
Interdigital skin hyperplasia
usually Skin adjacent to the lateral digit, 2o to chronic irritation
lameness due to pinching of interdigital mass or 2o infection → necrobacillosis
Tx - small lesions resolve spontaneously, large lesions - surgical removal, treat 2o infections
Slurry heel
Erosion due to long periods of standing in corrosive slurry
deep erosions may result in infected heels or white line lesions → rotation of foot backwards - unstable weight bearing & lengthening of the toe
Control; slurry removal, keep feet clean & dry
Horn overgrowth
lateral hind claws
-> altered weight bearing -> other problems
Mud fever
CS; Swelling from the top of the hoof to above the fetlock, skin inflamed, thickened & hair crusted
Tx; clean, dry, antiseptic cream, +/- systemic antibiotics
Horizontal fissure
Severe lameness, extremely painful
- severe illness eg toxic mastitis, severe metritis → hardship line
Put block on other foot, hoof will grow out (takes time), consider culling
vertical fissure/sand crack
Down from coronary band
Result of damage to the periople, following hot dry sandy conditions
infection of the laminae → severe lameness
Tx - open & drain, apply block to sound claw
Fracture of the pedal bone/P3
Usually medial claw of front foot
cross-legged stance, no heat or swelling in foot
Tx - apply block to good claw, heals in 2-3 months
Deep digital sepsis
Deep infection of the foot, follows solar ulceration, white line disease or puncture wound
affects 1 or more structures - septic pedal arthritis, septic navicular bursitis?
Tx; Requires radical drainage, curettage, bandage + antibiotics...digit amputation
can spread to tendon sheath, lymph nodes, other sites
Lameness - management
Identify, treat & record all cases of lameness
Regular preventive foot care + record (findings)
Nutrition - Ensure adequate well-balanced diet
Reduce environmental challenges to the foot (slurry removal, dry conditions)
Genetics - Select sires for good foot health
Scald/Ovine interdigital dermatitis
Non-progressive foot rot, Fusobacterium necrophorum
warm wet weather, young sheep on lush pasture
CS; lameness, interdigital skin inflamed, moist, painful, no separation or under-running of horn
Tx - resolves with drying, topical oxytet, foot bath
Contagious foot rot - Sheep
Dichelobacter nodosus, Fusobacterium necrophorum
flock problem - warm, wet, ↑stocking density. Lowland flocks
Persists in infected feet long time, in environment 10-14 days
skin-horn junction, enzymes damage claw & foot
CS; progressive lameness, 'knee walking', lose condition, multiple feet - moist hairless raw, separation of horn, under-running of horn, smell, cheesy gray exudate
Contagious foot rot - Sheep - Tx
systemic long acting penn or oxytet
pare foot (clean up clippings - contagious),
separate affected animals, unaffected to clean pasture
10% ZnSO foot bath (bacteriostatic) - stand in 15-30 minutes, stand in dry area 30 min, q4weeks recheck in 1 month
Cull if chronic, check buy-ins
vaccine - Footvax - Dichelobacter, before Mar-May & Oct-Dec, AE - local rxn
Contagious ovine digital dermatitis
Initial lesion at coronary band, rapid spread, separates hoof → loose hoof, may permanently damage foot, painful
Tx; Tilmicosin or amoxicillin, foot bath - Tylosin, Lincomycin, Chlortetracycline - not licensed 28 day withdrawal
Toe/Foot abscess - Sheep
Fusobacterium necrophorum, A. pyogenes - FBs, badly shaped feet
Individual, acute lameness, hot, swollen, painful foot, purulent exudate, under-run horn. may involve deeper structures
Tx; drainage, penicillin...digit amputation, cull
Interdigital fibroma - Sheep
Tups, hind feet, 2o infection → ulceration
Strawberry foot rot - Sheep
Dermatophilus congolensis, orf - zoonotic
affects lambs, lower limbs & body, ulcerated, bleeding raw surface below scab
Tx; dry conditions + antibiotics, foot baths
joint ill/infectious arthritis - sheep
E. coli, Staph, Strep, Mannheimia
Old ewe, young lamb < 2 weeks old
CS; sudden onset lameness, may involve >1 joint, joint - hot, swollen, painful, bacteremia - dullness, pyrexia
Tx; antibiotics - early, prognosis poor Prevention - colostrum, hygiene - dip navel, hygienic tail docking & castration
Erysipelas - Sheep
Often after dipping, castration or docking, group problem, growing lambs, chronic lameness, synovitis - heat & pain, bacteremia Dx; culture joint aspirate, PM
Tx; penn early, poor prognosis later
control - hygiene, bacteriostats in dips, change dips daily, clean pasture after docking & castration
(vaccine - Eryvac in some countries, not UK)
Lameness - management - sheep
Routine foot trimming - good/sharp clean instruments, don't over-pare
Treat problems early, good foot bathing facilities
Bovicola bovis - dorsal, Linognathus vituli - axilla
housed cattle (transmitted by direct contact)
CS: Mild chronic dermatitis, irregular loss of hair/patches
visible with naked eye, mobile black specks
↓value of animal presented for sale
Tx; pyrethroid pour-ons (cypermethrin, deltamethrin), Ivermectin, eprinomectin, Doramectin, moxidectin (not biting lice - Bovicola)
Psoroptes ovis, Chorioptes bovis, Sarcoptes scabei, Demodex bovis
common in housed cattle (Transmitted by direct contact)
CS; pruritus, scaling flaking skin, especially near tail head, lymphadenopathy, Hide damage
Dx; CS, skin scrape (deep for sarcoptes)
Tx; injectable or pour-on Avermectins - eprinomectin (0 milk withdrawal), ivermectin, doramectin, moxidectin
GB warble-free, surveillance
Warble flies/Hypoderma lineatum & bovis, notifiable
CS; warbles (2-3 cm lumps on back), gad - run madly → trauma, ↓milk yields & weight gains, occasional paralysis (bovis migrates through spinal canal)
larvae → butcher's jelly, hide damage
Tx; ivermectins, compulsory
Cutaneus actinobacillosis
Actinobacillus lignieresii
yearlings, infects skin wounds - abscess, fibrosis
Tx; streptomycin
Dermatophilus congolensis
healthy carriers risks - prolonged wetness, skin damage
common in bucket fed calves, occasionally adults
CS; crusty dermatitis with pus underneath - ears & face, 3-10 mm swellings, non-pruritic, grey scabs (ringworm-like)
Dx; microscopy of smeared pus or scab
Tx; oxytet, prevent fly strike in lesions
Trichopyton verrucosum, infects hair follicles, zoonotic
common in calves, occasionally in adults (direct & indirect transmission - housing)
CS; typical gray plaques, thickened roughened skin, often near eyes & ears, 2o infections. microscopic ID
Tx; lesions resolve with time, topical antifungals - natamycin, enilconazole - store animals for sale
Control; sterilize housing, vaccine - Bovilis Ringvac (problem herds)
BPV 1,2 & 3, very common
6-24 month olds (spread by direct & indirect contact)
CS; multiple gray firm pedunculated lesions - head neck, dewlap, prone to 2o infection & myiasis
regress within 1-12 months
Control; autogenous vaccines - herds with problems (↓sale value of animals)
Sporadic Bovine Leukosis
Unknown cause, dairy & beef cows < 4 years, single case
Cutaneous lymphosarcoma - grey-white plaques, non-painful, coalescing lesions, fatal
Thymic lymphosarcoma - ventral cervical swelling, edema, weight loss, respiratory distress, ↑area of thoracic dullness, fatal within 4 weeks
Sporadic Bovine Leukosis 2
Juvenile multicentric lymphosarcoma - < 6 months, sudden symmetrical enlargement of all LNs, respiratory signs, fatal in 4 weeks
adult multicentric lymphosarcoma
St. john's wort or hepatogenous
CS; non-pigmented skin, erythema, edema, swelling → ulceration, cracking & peeling, pain (~severe sun burn), 2o infections Ddx; Bluetongue, MCF
Dx; find plant or blood test - liver function & damage tests
remove agent, poor prognosis - liver status, NSAIDs
Sheep scab/psoroptic mange
Psoroptes ovis notifiable in Scotland
winter/Oct-Feb (mites quiescent during summer)
CS; intense pruritus (nibble reflex), crusty skin lesions, rubbing → trauma, loss of wool on shoulders, (stop eating) loss of condition, flock problem, 2o infections
poor welfare & economic losses (reduced growth)
Ddx; scrapie, lice, "slipped wool syndrome" (stress response in summer) Dx; CS, skin scrape
Sheep scab/psoroptic mange - Tx
Tx; Treat all sheep, dipping - Diazinon (removes Ag), parenteral endectocides - ivermectin, doramectin, moxidectin (irritation & hypersensitivity can persist)
re-infection from fomites possible for 15-17 days
Notify neighboring farms - treat
Sheep Scab Order 2010 - notification on suspicion, movement restrictions - can move for treatment or slaughter, must treat all sheep
Sheep lice/Pediculosis
Damalinia ovis, Linognathus ovillis - face, Linognathus pedalis - legs
CS; restless, scratching & nibbling, wool damage, weight loss
Ddx; sheep scab
Tx; pyrethroid - Deltamethrin or Cypermethrin, amitraz, avermectin pour-ons
Keds - sheep
Melophagus ovinus, brown wingless fly, visible with naked eye
late autumn & winter
CS; restlessness, pruritus, staining of wool, ↓weight gain
Ddx; sheep scab
Tx; pyrethroid pour-on - Deltamethrin, Cypermethrin, dip - Diazinon or amitraz
Foot scab/chorioptic mange
CS; hair loss, crust formation, pruritus - above coronary band, interdigital space
Tx; acaricide
Fly strike/myiasis
Blow flies
Jun-Sep, wounds & soiled areas, long fleece in warm wet weather
CS; restless, odor, wool moist & brown, maggots visible
→ moist dermatitis...fatal septicemia (sheep)
Tx; clip & clean wound, apply fly repellant cream
Flys strike/myiasis - sheep prevention
Prevention; dagging - removing fleece around tail, dock tails, control endoparasites, protect wounds, pour-on insect growth regulators - cyromazine, dicyclanil, prophylaxis, 4 months avoid shearing for 3 months, withdrawal 40 days
Sheep dips
regulated, COSHH, proficiency certificate
Diazinon (OP) - scab (psoroptes), blow-flies, ticks/keds/lice
Amitraz - ticks/keds/lice
Dermatophilosis/Lumpy wool
Dermatophilus congolensis, ubiquitous
healthy carriers risk factors - wet, skin damage
CS; crusty dermatitis (ears & face in lambs, scrotum in rams), non-pruritic, moist reddened skin
predisposes to myiasis & strawberry foot rot
Dx; microscopy of smeared pus or scab
self cure, Tx; penn, penn/strep, oxytet. prevent fly strike
Fleece rot
Moist eczema, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
wet weather or animals
CS; matting of wool & production of yellow or green pigment → downgrade wool. predisposes to fly strike
Tx; topical chlorhexidine
Orf/Contagious pustular dermatitis
Parapox virus, widespread in UK Zoonotic
Jul-Sep, lambs < 6 mo, (direct & indirect spread - persists in buildings), oral damage - rough feed or erupting teeth, rapid spread
- erythema, ulceration, scabby crusty lesions on mouth, nose & udder, ↓growth, teat lesions can interfere with suckling
Orf 2
resolves in 4-6 weeks, partial immunity - can be reinfected, no Abs in colostrum
Prevention; disinfect housing, vaccinate - Scabivax (problem herds, zoonotic)
Infectious Bovine keratoconjunctivitis
Moraxella bovis
< 2 years, summer, herd problem
CS; conjunctivitis, crusting, watery-purulent drainage, corneal edema (Ddx MCF) - opaque, corneal ulceration, no respiratory disease (Ddx IBR), ↓milk yield & weight gain (pain)
Tx; topical ointment - cloxacillin, subconjuctival antibiotics (unlicensed route)
Bovine iritis/silage eye
Inflammation of uveal tract (iris) → corneal opacity
big bale silage in ring feeders (stalk pokes eye & inoculates bacteria)
CS; unilateral, lacrimation, bulging iris, diffuse white or bluish opacity of cornea, hypopyon, no corneal ulcer
Tx; systemic florfenicol
Squamous cell carcinoma of the eye
Rare in UK, non-pigmented eyes (herefords)
Tx; enucleation
Vitamin A deficiency - CS; blindness, nervous signs, pupil dilation, no PLR, edema of optic disc.
Tx; increase green feed, supplement or turn out to grass
Blind staggers/Selenium toxicity
Ill thrift in sheep
OPA/Jaagsiekte, Maedi-visna, Lung worms
Johne's, PGE, Fasciolosis
Tick-borne Fever - tick area, Anaplasma in granulocytes
Tick pyemia/enzootic staphylococcal infection of lambs
Sudden death in cattle
Acute septicemia, toxemia
vena caval syndrome, pulmonary thromboembolism - individual animal
Toxins - oak poisoning, Hemlock, Lead poisoning
lightning strike, hypomagnesemia
Anthrax - intensely hemorrhagic carcass, notifiable
Black leg - Clostridium chauvoei, black necrotic muscle, vax
Sudden death in sheep - Clostridial diseases
trigger (environmental or management change, or injury), vax
Black leg - C. chauvoei, black necrotic muscle
Braxy - C. septicum - abomasitis
Malignant edema - C. septicum, swelling of head
Struck - C. perfringens type C, scour, lameness
C. sordelli, enteritis
Black's disease - C. novyi, fluke, black skin & edema, liver congestion & necrosis
Sudden death in sheep - other causes
Hypomagnesemia, Toxins - Hemlock, lead, rhododendron
Sudden death in lambs
Pulpy kidney
Pulpy kidney
Enterotoxemia - C. perfringens type D
affects lambs, recent movement, lush pasture
CS; sudden death of well fed lambs, hyperglycemia, ataxia, trembling, stiff limbs, convulsions, coma
Pulpy kidney 2
Diagnosis; pathology - pulpy kidney, excess pericardial fluid, small areas of hemorrhage in epicardium, serosa, thymus & diaphragm, lungs edematous
(glycosuria), PCR, ELISA
Tx; type D anti-toxin, antibiotics, adjust diet,
Control - vaccinate - 2 doses, 14-28 days apart
Drugs - withdrawal periods
based on MRLs (Maximum Residue Limits)
As specified on data sheet (VMD)
or minimum 7 days for eggs and milk, 28 days for meat from poultry and mammals, 500 degree days for meat from fish
Cascade for Farm Animals
the pharmacologically active substances must be listed in Annex I, II or III Regulation (ECC) No. 2377/90 (aka allowed annex)
Cascade - If no licensed product then
1 - if not, can use a product authorized in UK for another food producing species, to avoid unnecessary suffering
2 - if not, can use a human medicine licensed in the UK or a VMP authorized in another member state for food producing animals
3 - if not, a VMP prepared extemporaneously by a pharmacist, a veterinary surgeon or a person holding a manufacturing authorization
Farm records
Acquisition: date, product name, batch #, quantity, name & address of supplier
Administration; date, product name, quantity, withdrawal period, ID of animals treated
keep records 5 years
CS - change in posture, anxiety, self mutilation
anthropomorphic assumptions - castration, tail docking, de-horning, dystocia & c-section, abomasal volvulus etc
Ketoprofen ≤ 3 days, withdrawal for meat 4 days
Flunixin ≤ 5 days, withdrawal for milk 12 hrs, meat 5 days
Meloxicam 1 dose, not lactating, withdrawal for meat 15 days
Carprofen 1 dose, not lactating, withdrawal for meat 21 days
Tolfenamic acid - withdrawal for meat 3 days
α2 agonists
- sedation, muscle relaxation, analgesia dose-dependent
AE; hypoxemia, ↑ myometrial tone (not recommended last trimester), depress GI motility
Xylazine - cattle very sensitive - can become recumbent, use 1/10 of horse dose. (antagonist Atipamezole not allowed)
small ruminants - risk of profound hypoxemia, pulmonary edema pigs resistant
Detomidine - cattle standing sedation, less effect on uterine tone
Detomidine - cattle standing sedation, less effect on uterine tone
Diazepam - IV, good predictable sedation in small ruminants
Midazolam - IM, small ruminants and pigs
Azaperone - IM, pigs, mild vasodilation, leave quietly for 20 min
Local anesthetics - Procaine
licensed for SC route
Local anesthetics - Lidocaine
- not licensed, various techniques used
IVRA - place tourniquet, inject anesthetic IV, wait 5 min, remove tourniquet 30-120 minutes later → distal limb, teat
Epidural - lumbo-sacral or sacro-coccygeal (S5Co1 or Co1-Co2) , desensitize skin first → desensitizes perineum, genitalia, pelvic viscera and tail, stops abdominal contractions
Local anesthesia - abdomen
Line block - inject SC, then deep (through desensitized area). disadvantages - lots of drug in surgical site, toxicity, incomplete analgesia, muscle relaxation, cost (larger volume)
Inverted L or 7 block - (right side) similar to line block, (left side ~ reverse 7, behind ribs)
Para-vertebral block - dorsal & ventral branches T13, L1 & 2, requires skill, inject SC, then deep. will bend towards the side blocked (m relaxation), increased skin T, skin desensitized. disadvantages - requires skill, risk of penetration of vital structures. advantages - less drug/cheapr, better anesthesia, doesn't interfere with surgery
Local anesthesia - routine procedures
horn - zygomatico-temporal nerve block
castration - incision line, spermatic cord
teat - IVRA, ring block (around teat base), intervertebral V block, teat cistern infusion
laparotomy - line block, inverse L/reverse 7 block, para-vertebral block, epidural
Clenbuterol (Planipart)
indications; cesarean, uterine prolapse, delay parturition (allow better relaxation of birth canal & perineum in heifers)
→ relaxation & coordination of myometrial contractions
antagonistic to oxytocin & PGs
General Anesthesia
Fast, Pre-med - Cattle xylazine, pigs azaperone
Cattle isoflurane (not licesnsed)
Pigs Detomidine + ketamine IV - auricular catheter
Problems; regurgitation, salivation, abdominal tympany, hypoventilation (VQ mismatch in lateral recumbency)
Surgery - general principles
Restraint - safety, immobilization, access
Hygiene - environment, skin, instruments
Instruments - clean, functional
Aftercare - farmer must be willing
Elastration - ring < 7 days
if calf or piglet > 2 months old, lamb > 3 months old - must be vet & use anesthetic
Testectomy - line block incision + spermatic cord, + NSAID
Emasculation - local anesthesia, set for 1 min, move 1 cm set for 1 min, should reduce in size within 2-3 weeks
Requires anesthetic (unless chemical cauterization before 7 days) - local anesthetic under lateral ridge of frontal bone (cornual branch of zygomatico-temporal N)
Only a vet can disbud sheep
opens frontal sinus
TIVA - calves
xylazine + ketamine - 40 minutes of anesthesia, IV catheter can top-up ketamine eg umbilical abscess
Oral lesions
traumatic - oral ulcers, mandibular fracture
Calf diptheria
Fusobacterium necrophorum
Cs; deep necrotic ulceration of oral mucosa, halitosis
Tx; antibiotics - sulphonamides, penicillin or tetraycline NSAIDs, fluids...tracheostomy (valuable calves)
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)
virus, 7 serotypes (no cross protection) notifiable
Highly contagious, multiplies rapidly, survives up to 30 days in environment (Africa, Asia, S. America)
Shed in all excretions (including milk), fomites, air-borne, carriers, hedgehogs, birds
affects cloven hoofed animals - cattle, sheep, pigs
History; Acute, herd problem, lameness, drooling
CS; anorexia, pyrexia, dullness, drooling, lameness, vesicles → ulcers on mouth, feet & udder (white coronary band), death of young animals, abortion
Ddx; caustic treated straw
Transmitted in bone-in meat - import restrictions
"Stamping out policy"
- animal health, epidemics
notification & investigation
movement restrictions
slaughter & disposal of infected animals & dangerous contacts
clean & disinfect
Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF)
OHV-2 from sheep, AHV-1 from wildebeests, subclinical infection in main host, cattle dead end host (no shedding)
other animals may have been exposed to source
History; usually acute sporadic infection of individual animals
exposed to sheep, especially lambing ewes
Control; avoid contact with sheep, don't re-use housing
CS; dullness, anorexia, pyrexia, milk drop, mucopurulent oculo-nasal discharge +/- blood, corneal edema*, drooling, diffuse oral ulceration, dyspnea & stertorous breathing, rapid loss of condition, enlarged LNs, dermatitis, fatal
Pathology; small vesicles, large ulcers, vasculitis, diptheric membrane in esophagus
Dx; clinical signs, serology, PCR euthanasia
Blue tongue
Orbivirus notifiable
transmitted by midges, strain 8 is contagious - transplacental
affects sheep, goats, deer, cattle (reservoir), wild animals
CS; less severe, adults, necrotic lesions on nose, mouth & udder ulcers, edema in legs, coronary band inflammation, most recover
UK is Bluetongue-free, import restrictions, can't vaccinate
2007 outbreak
BPS/Bovine papular Stomatitis
Parapox virus Zoonotic* - milkers nodules
Oral target lesions - central necrosis, surrounded by inflammation and hyperemia, may be horse-shoe shaped - young animals
usually minor, often unnoticed, regress within 3 wks
if extensive lesions consider underlying BVDV
Wooden tongue/Actinobac
Actinobacillus lignieresi
CS; fibrous thickened tongue, red/brown discharging ulcers or swellings on tongue, dropping feed, +/- skin lesions - shoulders & feet
cutaneous form can affect soft tissues eg rumen
Histopathology; splendore-heoppli material
Treatment; streptomycin beef cattle worth treating, dairy may not be
risk factor - course feed
Nutrition - dietary cautions
Roughages; lush grass - early spring grass ↓ Mg, vit D
silage - poor silage - ↓ Ca, P
hay - ↓ Ca, P
straw - ↓ Mg, Ca, P, vit A, D, E
Succulents; root crops - ↓ P, vit A, D, E
Concentrates - ↓ vitamins, Cereals - ↓ Mg, Ca, Na
Oil seeds
Nutrition - when supplementation is needed
Mg early spring turnout (1st 2-4 weeks)
Ca with concentrate rations - pig rations & cereal beef
Energy/protein when grazing sparse
Trace elements where deficient - Se, Cu, Co, Vit A, D, E