Arab Israeli War
Terms in this set (38)
a letter from the British foreign Secretary to Lord Rothschild where the Brits make their support of a Jewish homeland in Palestine public info The Jews wanted a homeland as prosecution safety, so they chose their ancestral Home. The Brits made the Balf Dec in hopes of gaining support from the Jews in Palestine/the world. There were White papers stating that Brits didn't support the creation of Israel anymore
The founder of the PLO that signed the Declaration of Principles and recognized Israel's right to exist and called for an independent Palestine in 1988
8 letters sent between Sharif Hussein of Mecca, and the British high commissioner of Egypt, Sir Henry McMahon, about the future political status of the lands under the Ottoman Empire. Brit gov. promised independence to a certain amount of Arab nations if the Ottomans were overthrown. The letters were the terms under which Hussein would convince Arabs to join the Allies (in WWI). Ambiguous terms from both sides led to disputes and denial (Arabs thought several countries would be granted independence, but Brits say Palestine would NOT be one) This caused both Arabs and Israelis to think Palestine was their land.
Former PM, minister of defense, and foreign ambassador for Israel, awarded Nobel Peace Prize for his work with Yassir Arafat and Shimon Peres for peace between Israel and the PLO. Was assassinated after signing Oslo accord (by an Israeli)
a secret agreement that the UK and France would split up the Arab states (part of the Ottoman Empire → central powers). This opposed the Husayn-McMahon correspondence → Brits granting land to Arabs while dividing it between themselves & France. Russian Communists released this info, putting the Arab region in dismay
The Jordanian King that relinquished Jordan's claim to the West Bank in 1988. He said that the PLO is the sole legitimate representative of Palestine and wants an independent Palestinian state. He also recognizes Israel's right to exist, rejects terrorism, and recognizes Resolution 242. He won a Nobel Peace Prize for making peace with Israel in 1996
Sherif Hussein of Mecca
the Sherif of Mecca that wrote letters back and forth with the British high commissioner of Egypt for the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence that promised independence to a certain amount of Arab nations if the Ottomans were overthrown and created confusion over the fate of Palestine.
Camp David Accords
Carter, Begin, and Sadat went to discuss
bringing a peaceful solution to Egypt-Israel relations, Palestinian terrorist, etc.. In the end, Israel recognized the rights of the Palestinian people and promised to get out of Egypt (Egypt say we'll maintain diplomatic terms w/ Israel). Resolution 242 was implemented, and Israeli troops evac. The Sinai pen and gain access to the Strait of Tiran. The Peace Treaty (aka the accord) is in 1979
the founder of Zionism
British sponsored resolution that states that Israel should withdraw from lands that they had gained in Six Day War. There should be recognition of Israel and Arab states territorial integrity and a just settlement to refugee problem. It was a result of the 1967 war. They were to guide negotiations for an Arab-Israeli peace settlement.
the American president that worked on the first Camp David Accords
PEEL Commission Partition
Pre-WWII report that suggested dividing land of Palestine and creating two states, one for the Jews and one for the Arabs. Was accepted by the Israelis but not by the Arabs.
Israeli PM that attended the '78 Camp David talks. He was a former Zionist and succeeded Rabin. He shared a Nobel Peace Prize with Sadat for the '79 Peace treaty after which Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula. He was the dude in office for Operation Galilee
PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization)
The Palestinian umbrella group w/ the main goal of regaining land given to Israel by the UN. Their violence corresponds with Israeli military success. The original leader was Yassir Arafat, when he died until currently it's Mahmoud Abbas. It was founded May 28, 1964
the President after Nasser that said, "Egypt became a backward country because of the slogan 'war is supreme,' this is why I opted for peace." He was assassinated for making peace with Israel
It is the "dispersal" of Jews, the 2nd temple was destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE and in 132 CE nearly all Jews were forced out of the land of Canaan (or Palestine/Promised Land) after another revolt against Roman rule, RESULT: many Jews settled in Eastern Europe, "Pale of Settlement"
There were many pogroms against Jews (an organized massacre against a particular ethnic group)
after the '48 Arab Israeli war, the Palestinians were pushed out (it's questionable whether or not by force). The most popular places people went were Jordan, the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Syria, Lebanon, and Saudi. They were not given land back by Israelis and Arab states didn't grant them citizenship.
Gamal Abdul Nasser
The President of Egypt during the Suez Crisis until his death in 1970. Under him, Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal and blockaded the Strait of Tiran. He was a hero throughout the Arab world for the end of the Suez Crisis, even though his rep was a bit damaged after the Arab loss in the 6-Day war.
The immigration of Jews to the Land of Israel (1st is into Palestine from East Europe and Yemen, and lasted from 1882 to 1903). Second (and larger) came 2 years after
The 42nd US President that is associated with the Declaration of Principles. He was the neutral at the Oslo Accords in '93.
UN Partition Plan
In 1947, the UN partitioned Palestine, that was accepted by mainstream Jews, but not by hard-lined Zionists. It was rejected by Arabs
The current President of the Palestinian Authority. He says the '47 rejection of the UN Partition Plan was a mistake that he hopes to rectify.
The 1987-1993 Intifada
A Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories that quickly spread throughout Gaza, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem. It was carried out primarily through non-violent disobedience and resistance, however stone-throwing kids and other parts of the Palestinian demonstrations against Israeli Defense Forces steadily increased in prevalence (it became more violent). Palestinians fight w/ rocks, Israelis respond w/ tanks (this wins Palestine support internationally). The main factor that caused the uprising was the settlements in the Golan Heights (once part of Syria). It ended with over 1,000 deaths
The 2000 Intifada
Ariel Sharon, the leader of an Israeli political group, visited Temple Mount in East Jerusalem sparking a round of fighting by the Palestinians that was more violent than the first Intifada with an increase in suicide bombs and firearms. Israelis reoccupied parts of the West Bank, performed air strikes, and began constructing 'The Wall,' which separated Palestinians from the Jewish population centers in the West Bank. Violence stopped in 2005. Frustration: Many years had passed and there was no progress towards the peace process
King Abdullah II
the son of Jordanian King Hussein who took his father's place after his death. He attended the Arab Summit in '02 to help find a solution for the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
Declaration of Principles
After months of negotiating, the PLO agree to a Declaration of Principles outside Oslo. Each side officially recognize one other and the reduction of violence. Oslo was between Rabin, Arafat, Clinton. The PA (Palestinian Authority) was created, Israel recognize that the PLO is NOT a terrorist org, and plan on withdrawing from Gaza and the West Bank. Elections of the PA will take place, the final settlement up to negotiation for the next 5years.
This was a test question (modified now, so it's already answered):
All of the options below were in the Declaration of Principles:
a. Israel recognized the PLO as a legit representative of the Palestine people (NOT a terrorist organization)
b. There would be a 5 year process in which Israel would get out of the occupied territories and there would be Palestinian self-rule
c. Israel would withdraw from Gaza and most of the West Bank
d. Elections for a PA (Palestinian Authority) to run Gaza and the West Bank
The current PM of Israel he opposed the Oslo accords
The national Jewish movement for the return to their homelands and resumption of Jewish sovereignty of Israel. This was founded by Theodor Herzl who began thinking Jews needed a homeland where they'd be safe from persecution after the Dreyfus Affair. "Next year in Jerusalem."
King of Saudi from '64-'75 He was pro-Palestine and anti-Communism, which he associated with Zionism. He drew close ties to Sadat. He withdrew oil from world markets in '73 in protest of the Western support for Israel, It is believed that this is the reason for his assassination by his half-nephew
The first Arab-Israeli War
The war of independence that was a
Palestinian offensive in response to Israel becoming a state and the UN partition plan. It ended with a Palestinian diaspora, and Israel got 1/3 of the territory. Palestine, Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Saudi, Lebanon, and Iraq were all against Israel. Arabs outnumber Jews, but struggled without self-government or a coordinated military
1956 War: The Suez Crisis
Nasser nationalized the Suez canal and the Soviets give Egyptian aid. US offers to build a canal, but when Nasser agrees they say 'Never Mind.' Egypt responds by blocking Israeli ships. Israel move toward the canal. The Brits and French paratroop in to secure the canal in a lighting attack, and they demand a cease-fire, which the Egyptians refuse. They respond to this by sinking ships in the Med end of the canal. They US then says chill, they do, and no territory is gained/lost
1967 Arab-Israeli War: "The Six Day War"(June 5-10)
Nasser requested the withdrawal of UN forces from Egypt, mobilized in the Sinai, and closed the Gulf of Aqaba to Israel, so the Israelis mobilized. Israel came in very strongly and controlled the Sinai Peninsula within 3 days, and then concentrated on capturing Jerusalem's Old City and the Golan Heights. In the end, the Suez Canal was closed and Israel said that they wouldn't give up Jerusalem or other captured territories until significant progress had been made in Arab-Israeli relations.
Results in a LOT more land for the Israelis (hence pre-67 borders), the Israelis OCCUPY the WestB and the GazaS, and eventually the Sinai Peninsula will be traded to Egyptians for peace (It is later given back in '79 - the same year Egypt was kicked out of the Arab League)
1973 Arab-Israeli War; "The Yom Kippur War" or "The October War"
The Arab states quietly prepped for war against Israel, because they felt their complaints were going unheeded. Then, on the holiest day in Judaism the Egyptians attacked, pushing Israelis back. Simultaneously, the Syrians attacked from the North with the help of Iraqis and 3 other Arab states. Several days later (after the shock went away) the Israelis, who had been caught off guard, began to force everyone back. In the end, a salient on the west bank of the Suez Canal was established. OPEC placed an oil embargo on the US (Gas crunch)
the Palestinian faction in charge of the Gaza Strip, they won the 2006 elections. They oppose the Fatah branch
A major Palestinian party and is the largest faction of the PLO. Arafat worked with Fatah to "forge an independent Palestinian identity"
Operation Peace for Galilee ("The Lebanese War" in 1982)
Israel attacked Lebanon (inv. All the way to Beirut, angered mostly Shia southerners) with the hope that Lebanon would sign a treaty promising Israel 40 years of peace. They planned to do this by expelling the PLO (they ARE driven out), removing Syrian influence, and installing a pro-Israeli Christian government. This led to the Lebanese Civil War as the conflict was not Israel vs. Lebanon but rather Israel vs. PLO vs. Syria vs. Muslim Lebanese forces. Around 20 thousand Palestinians & Lebanese die. Israel got out in 2000. This invasion led to the rise of Hezbollah.
The settlements issue
Many Israeli settlements were being created on land that is rightfully Palestinian. The Israelis are occupying the WBank and Gaza Strip when they should just go be happy with their 80%. If the right of return goes through, they have to kick Israelis out raising the question of denying the Israelis their right of self determination
Palestinian Right of Return
Clause that allows Palestinians to return to the land they were kicked out of years ago. Problem: what will happen to the Israeli settlements & people living there.