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79 terms

HUMANBIO~Skeletal/Muscular

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Acetylcholine
is a neurotransmitter, a chemical release by nerve cells that has either an excitatory or inhibitory effect on another excitable cell.
Antagonistic
are muscles that create opposite movements, or muscles that oppose each other.
Cardiac
specialized muscle tissue of the heart.
Concentric
is muscle contraction with muscle shortening
Eccentric
is muscle contraction with muscle lengthening... Load exceeds the maximum ability (slow lengthening)
Fascicle
arranged muscles in bundles, enclosed in a sheath of a type of fibrous connective tissue called fascia. Can contain a few dozen to thousands of individual muscle cells/fibers.
Fast Twitch
fibers can contract more quickly than slow twitch fibers because they break down ATP more quickly. Have fewer mitochondria, blood vessels and little to no myoglobin compared with slow twitch fibers they are also called white muscle.
Isometric
(same + length) contractions, force is generated, muscle tension increases, and the muscle may even shorten a little as tendons are stretched slightly but bones and objects do not move.
Insertion
is the end of the muscle attached to the bone that moves when the muscle moves.
Isotonic
is a general term for normal tone or tension. Contractions occur whenever a muscle shortens while maintaining a constant force.
Muscle cells
are tube shaped, larger and unusually longer than most other human cells.
Slow Twitch
fibers break down ATP slowly, and so they contract slowly. Contain many mitochondria and are well supplied with blood vessels so they draw more blood and oxygen than fast-twitch fibers.
Recruitment
is the increasing tone or force by activating more motor units
Origin
is the end of a muscle that is attached to the bone that does not move during muscular contractions.
Neuromuscular Junction
is the region where a motor neuron comes in close contact with a muscle cell. Neurotransmitter released by the motor neuron causes an electrical impulse to be generated in the muscle cell.
Myofibril
are contractile chain proteins that run the length of the muscle cell/fiber. Packed with contractile proteins called actin and myosin.
Tropomyosin
covers the Actin filaments myosin binding site. Once Troponin is bound to calcium, this moves. Allowing the myosin to grab a hold of the Actin.
Skeletal muscle
composed of cylindrical multinucleated cells with obcious striations. Attaches to the body's skeleton
Troponin
is on the tropomyosin and has a receptor site for calcium to bind. Thus releasing or moving the tropomyosin off of the actin filament.
Synergistic
muscles work together to create a particular movement.
Smooth muscle
is spindle-shapped muscle cells with only centrally located nucleus and not externally visible striations. They are found mainly in the walls of hollow organs.
T-Tubules
is a tube like extension of the cell membrane that transmits the electrical impulse deep into the interior of the cell. Job is to get the electrical impulse to all parts of the cell as quickly as possible.
Actin
is a contractile protein of muscle. It forms the thin filaments in the myofibrils.
All-or-none principle
is the principle that muscle cells always contract completely each time they are stimulated by their motor neuron, and that they do not contract at all if they are not stimulated by their motor neuron.
Fatigue
is defined as a decline in muscle performance during exercise.
Motor neuron
is a neuron in the peripheral nervous system that conducts nerve impulses from the central nervous system to body tissues and organs.
Motor unit
The motor neuron and all of the muscle cells it controls are called a motor unit.
Myosin
is one of the principal contractile proteins found in muscle. ______ is composed of thick filaments with cross-bridges.
Neurotransmitter
is a chemical released by a neuron that may stimulate or inhibit other neurons or effector cells.
Oxygen debt
is the amount of oxygen required after exercise to oxidize the lactic acid formed by anaerobic metabolism during exercise.
Recruitment
Increasing tone by activating more motor units is called Recruitment, this affects overall muscle force.
Sarcomere
is the smallest contractile unit of a muscle myofibril. A _______ extends from one Z-line to the next.
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Sarcoplasmic reticulum is a specialized endo-plasmic reticulum of muscle cells that surrounds the myofibrils and stores the calcium needed for the initiation of muscle contraction.
Sliding filament mechanism
is the mechanism of muscle contraction. Muscles contract when the thick and thin filaments slide past each other and sarcomeres shorten.
Summation
is the accumulation of effects, especially those of muscular or neural activity
Twitch
is a complete cycle of contraction and relaxation in a muscle cell.
Axial skeleton
The portion of the skeleton that forms the main axis of the body, consisting of the skull, ribs, sternum, and backbone.
Bone
is a connective tissue that forms the bony skeleton. Bone consists of a few living cells encased in a hard extracellular matrix of mineral salts.
Appendicular skeleton
is the portion of the skeleton that forms the pectoral and pelvic girdles and the four extremities.
Carpal bones
are 8 small bones that make up the wrist.
Cartilage
is a white, semi-opaque, flexible connective tissue.
Cartilaginous joints
in which the bones are connected by hyaline cartilage, are slightly movable, allowing for some degree of flexibility. (vertebrae to back bone, lower ribs to sternum, pubic symphasis)
Chrondroblast
is a cartilage-forming cell. In the fetus, _______ produce the hyaline cartilage that forms the rudimentary models of future bones.
Chondrocytes
are the only cells found in cartilage. They produce and maintain the cartilaginous matrix, which consists mainly of collagen and proteoglycans.
Central (Haversian) canal
In bone, the hollow central tube of an osteon that contains nerves and blood vessels.
Epiphysis
is the enlarged knob at each end of a long bone. Contain spongy bone as well as red bone marrow.
Compact bone
is a type of dense bone found on the outer surfaces and and shafts of bones.
Clavical
are the bones that support the upper limbs, They extend across the top of the chest and attach to the scapula.
Extension
is the increasing of the angle of a joint
Femur
is the longest and strongest bone in the body.
Fibrous joints
are immovable. At birth flat bones in a baby's skull are separated by relatively large spaces filled with fibrous connective tissue. These_________ harden these immovable joints firmly connect the bones that protect and stabilize the skull and brain.
Fibula
is the thinner lateral bone in the lower leg.
Flexion
is the decrease of the angle of the joint.
Growth plate
is a cartilage plate located near the ends of bone. Bones become longer during childhood and adolescence because new cartilage is continually being added to the outer surface of the _________.
Intervertebral disk
is a disk of fibrocartilage between vertebrae.
Joint
is the junction or area of contact between two or more bones; also called an articulation.
Humerus
is the long bone of the upper arm, fits into a socket in the scapula. The other meets the ulna & radius.
Ligament
is a dense fibrous connective tissue that connects bone to bone.
Metacarpal
are the 5 bones that form to make the palm of the hand
Joint Capsule
is the synovial membrane and the surrounding hyaline cartilages constitute the joint capsule.
Metaphysis
is the area of the bone between the diaphysis and the Epiphysis. This area contains the growth plate.
Osteocyte
is a mature bone cell.
Osteoclast
is a cell that reabsorbs or breaks down bone.
Osteoblast
is a bone forming cell.
Osteon
is a cylindrical structure in bone composed of layers of living bone cells and hard extracellular material, arranged like the layers of an onion. In the center is a central canal through which nerves and blood vessels pass.
Phalanges
are the 14 bones that form the fingers and thumb.
Pronation
is the rotation of the forearms so the palm faces posteriorly.
Osteoporosis
is a progressive disorder involving increased softening and thinning of bone. __________ results from an imbalance in the rates of bone resorption and bone formation.
Radius
is the small bone in the lower arm that is lateral when the body is in amatomical position. This bone is on the thumb side of the hand.
Rotation
is the movement of a body part around its own axis.
Scapula
are the supportive frames for the upper limbs. They are triangular bones in the upper back.
Supination
is the rotation of the forearms so the palm faces anteriorly
Synovial joints:
Bones are separated by a thin fluid filled cavity. This is the most freely moveable of joints.
Spongy bone
the type of bone tissue characterized by thin, hard interconnecting bony elements enclosing hollow spaces. Red blood cells are produced in the spaces between the bony elements.
Tarsal
are the 7 bones that form the ankle.
Tendon
is a cord of dense fibrous connective tissue attaching muscle to bone.
Tibia
the larger, medial bone in the lower leg.
Vertebrae
are the 33 irregular bones that form the spine. Regions include cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, & coccygeal.
Ulna
is the smaller bone in the lower arm that is medial in the anatomical position. It is on the side of the hand as the little finger.